Ruokavirasto: Recent submissions

Now showing items 1-20 of 117
  • Abass, Khaled; Waits, Audrey; Emelyanova, Anastasia; Miettinen, Ilkka T.; Lavikainen, Antti; Rautio, Arja; Oksanen, Antti (Ruokavirasto, 2019)
    One Health takes a multidisciplinary approach to health risks and risk mitigation for humans, animals, plants and the environment, with the understanding that human health welfare is dependent on ecosystem health. The U.S. and Canada started the One Health project under the Sustainable Development Working Group (SDWG) of the Arctic Council in 2015, Finland joined the project as a colead in 2017. This report is a summary of the Finnish activities and achievements in the One Arctic - One Health project during the Finnish Chairmanship of the Arctic Council. The main actions included the One Arctic - One Health conference in Oulu, establishment of the TremArctic network, and two published Systematic Review papers and two manuscripts. There were also joint sessions and presentations in scientific conferences, seminars and workshops, and joint meetings and collaboration with the other Arctic Council Working Groups, the University of the Arctic, other organisations, and scientific projects. The report concludes with some updated proposals for further work, based on previous works and reflecting progress over the past two years. The Finnish One Arctic - One Health team consisted of scientists from the University of Oulu, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), University of Helsinki and the Finnish Food Authority. This work was supported by the grant of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland.
  • Bjerregaard, .; Charalampidis, A.; Frøding, R.; Shetty, R.; Pastell, H.; Jacobsen, C.; Zhuang, S.; Pinelo, M.; Hansen, P.; Hobley, T. (2019)
    European Food Research and Technology Vol. 245, No. 3, pp. 545 - 558
    Very large amounts of brewer’s spent grains (BSG) are produced in the world which is usually considered as a waste, or animal feed, rather than food for humans. Here, we report, for the first time, a new process at pilot scale for the separation of brewer’s spent grain and trub to solid and liquid streams that can be used in foods. A new type of continuous rotary drum press was used to process hot BSG to produce a liquid filtrate and a filter cake stream. Analysis showed that of the starting mass of BSG (ca. 120 kg), the liquid filtrate composed 50% of the mass, and the filter cake fraction composed 50% of the mass. The dry weight (DW) content of the BSG increased from 23 to over 35%. This led to concentration of insoluble dietary fibre (from 38 to 54%) and phenolics in the filter cake (from 102 to 150 mg/100 g DW as gallic acid equivalents). No fractionation of soluble species such as proteins occurred. Centrifugation of the filtrate from the rotary drum press led to a clarified supernatant stream and a paste. Concentration of insoluble dietary fibre and phenolics occurred in the paste (from 5 to 14% of DW and 61 to 114 mg/100 g DW as gallic acid equivalents), whereas soluble fibre and protein did not selectively partition. Given that the unit operations used here are scaleable and approved for food production, an industrially feasible route now exists to process brewers spent grains to ingredients.
  • Rossow, Heidi; Joutsen, Suvi; Tuominen, Pirkko (Ruokavirasto, 2019)
    Ruokaviraston tutkimuksia 2/2019
    Koiran hankinta ulkomailta on yhä suositumpaa. Tuontimäärien kasvaessa on herännyt myös kysymys koirien mahdollisesti kantamista taudinaiheuttajista. Tässä riskinarvioinnissa kartoitetaan, aiheuttaako koirien tuominen Suomeen tautiriskiä ihmisille tai eläimille Suomessa. Tutkimuksessa on arvioitu erityisesti rabieksen ja myyräekinokokin maahantulon ja maassa leviämisen riskiä tuontikoirien kautta. Projektia varten tehtiin tutkimus, jossa maahan tulevista koirista otettiin laboratorionäytteitä. Näytteistä tutkittiin koirien rabiesrokotevasta-ainetasot, Brucella canis, Echinococcus multilocularis (myyräekinokokki) sekä ESBL:n ja MRSA:n kantajuus. Lisäksi koirien näytteitä on tutkittu seuraavien loisten varalta: Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens ja Leishmania infantum (leishmanioosi). Tuontikoirista otetuista näytteistä saatujen tietojen ja julkaistun tieteellisen tutkimuksen lisäksi perustamme arviomme asiantuntijahaastatteluihin. Tutkimuksessa todettiin puutteita koirien rabiesrokotevasta-ainetasoissa. Lisäksi ESBL-kantajuus oli yleistä tietyistä maista tuoduilla koirilla. Koiran alkuperämaa ja olosuhteet, joista koira on lähtöisin, vaikuttavat tautiriskiin.
  • Pasonen, P.; Ranta, J.; Tapanainen, H.; Valsta, L.; Tuominen, P. (2019)
    International Journal of Food Microbiology 2019: Vol. 304, pp. 97 - 105
    Listeria monocytogenes causes severe consequences especially for persons belonging to risk groups. Finland is among the countries with highest number of listeriosis cases in the European Union. Although most reported cases appear to be sporadic and the maximum bacterial concentration of 100 cfu/g is not usually exceeded at retail, cold smoked and salt-cured fish products have been noted as those products with great risk especially for the elderly. In order to investigate the listeriosis risk more carefully, an exposure assessment was developed, and laboratory results for cold smoked and salt-cured salmon products were exploited. L. monocytogenes exposure was modeled for consumers in two age groups, the elderly population as a risk group and the working-age population as a reference. Incidence was assessed by estimating bacterial growth in the food products at three temperatures. Bayesian estimation of the risk was based on bacterial occurrence and product consumption data and epidemiological population data. The model builds on a two-state Markov chain describing repeated consumption on consecutive days. The cumulative exposure is probabilistically governed by the daily decreasing likelihood of continued consumption and the increasing bacterial concentrations due to growth. The population risk was then predicted with a Poisson distribution accounting for the daily probabilities of purchasing a contaminated product and the cumulative total probability of infection from its use. According to the model presented in this article, elderly Finns are at a greater risk of acquiring listeriosis than healthy adults. The risk for the elderly does not fully diminish even if the products have been stored at the recommended temperature (between 0 and 3 °C). It can be concluded that the stage after retail, i.e. food handling and storage by consumer or professional kitchens, is essential to protection against listeriosis. The estimation model provides means for assessing the joint impacts of these effects.
  • Kaila, M.; Marjoniemi, I.; Nokireki, T. (2019)
    Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2019: Vol. 61, No. 15
    Seventy-two canine serum samples were analyzed for post-vaccination serum titers of rabies antibodies. The samples were divided into two groups: Group 1 dogs (n = 36) were imported dogs from the Russian Federation (n = 31) or Romania (n = 5), with a mean serum antibody titer value of 1.54 IU/mL. Group 2 dogs (n = 36) were Finnish dogs vaccinated in Finland, with a mean titer of 4.19 IU/mL. Altogether, 14 (39%) dogs (CI 95% 23–56) were without detectable antibodies (≤ 0.1 IU/mL) in Group 1, whereas in Group 2, all dogs had an antibody titer greater than 0.1 IU/mL. A statistically significant difference was observed between these groups when comparing the proportions of dogs with antibody levels less than or exceeding 0.5 IU/mL. In Group 1, 19 out of the 36 dogs (CI 95% 36–70) had serum titer values < 0.5 IU/mL, while in Group 2, only 2 dogs had serum titer values < 0.5 IU/mL. Despite the small sample size, this raises concern over the imported dogs having insufficient antibody levels required for international travel and implies that these dogs had perhaps not been vaccinated, even though they had documentation of vaccination upon arrival.
  • Jaakkonen, A.; Castro, H.; Hallanvuo, S.; Ranta, J.; Rossi, M.; Isidro, J.; Lindström, M.; Hakkinen, M. (2019)
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2019: Vol. 85, No. 7
    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Campylobacter jejuni are notable health hazards associated with the consumption of raw milk. These bacteria may colonize the intestines of asymptomatic cattle and enter bulk tank milk via fecal contamination during milking. We studied the frequency of STEC O157:H7 and C. jejuni contamination in tank milk (n = 785) and the in-line milk filters of milking machines (n = 631) versus the frequency of isolation from cattle feces (n = 257) on three Finnish dairy farms for 1 year. Despite simultaneous isolation of STEC O157:H7 (17%) or C. jejuni (53%) from cattle, these bacteria were rarely isolated from milk filters (2% or <1%, respectively) and milk (0%). As revealed by phylogenomics, one STEC O157:H7 strain at a time was detected on each farm and persisted for ≤12 months despite rigorous hygienic measures. C. jejuni strains of a generalist sequence type (ST-883 and ST-1080) persisted in the herds for ≥11 months, and several other C. jejuni types were detected sporadically. The stx gene carried by STEC was detected more frequently from milk filters (37%) than from milk (7%), suggesting that milk filters are more suitable sampling targets for monitoring than milk. A questionnaire of on-farm practices suggested lower stx contamination of milk when major cleansing in the barn, culling, or pasturing of dairy cows was applied, while a higher average outdoor temperature was associated with higher stx contamination. Because pathogen contamination occurred despite good hygiene and because pathogen detection from milk and milk filters proved challenging, we recommend heat treatment for raw milk before consumption.
  • Alisauskaite, N.; Cizinauskas, S.; Jeserevics, J.; Rakauskas, M.; Cherubini, G.; Anttila, M.; Steffen, F. (2019)
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine Vol. 33, No. 3
    Background There is a successful outcome after surgical management of spinal arachnoid diverticula (SAD) in up to 82% of cases. Hypothesis/Objectives We hypothesized that Pugs have favorable short‐term and poor long‐term prognosis after surgical treatment of thoracolumbar SAD. The aim of the present investigation was to describe clinical findings, short‐ and long‐term outcomes, and follow‐up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in Pugs with thoracolumbar SAD. Animals Twenty‐five client owned Pugs with 12‐month follow‐up information after surgical treatment of thoracolumbar SAD. Methods Multicenter retrospective case series. All medical records were searched for Pugs diagnosed with SAD. Data regarding signalment, history, surgical procedure, outcome, histopathology, and follow‐up MRI results were extracted. Results Mean age at presentation was 7.32 (range 2‐11) years, 80% were males. Short‐term outcome was available in 25 dogs, and improvement was confirmed in 80% of dogs. Long‐term outcome was available in 21 dogs, and deterioration was confirmed in 86% of cases, with late‐onset recurrence of clinical signs after initial postsurgical improvement affecting 85% of Pugs. A moderate correlation (r = 0.50) was found between duration of clinical signs and outcome. In 8 dogs with deteriorating clinical signs, follow‐up MRI revealed regrowth of the SAD in 2 cases, new SAD formation in 2 cases, and intramedullary T2W hyperintensity/syringomyelia in 6 cases. Conclusions and Clinical Importance This study suggests that Pugs with thoracolumbar SAD do not have a favorable long‐term prognosis after surgical treatment for reasons yet to be determined.
  • Wisselink, H.; Wisselink, H.; Smid, B.; Plater, J.; Ridley, A.; Andersson, A.-M.; Aspán, M.; Pohjanvirta, T.; Vähänikkilä, N.; Larsen, H.; Høgberg, J.; Colin, A.; Tardy, F. (2019)
    BMC Veterinary Research 2019: Vol. 15, No. 86.
    Background Several species-specific PCR assays, based on a variety of target genes are currently used in the diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis infections in cattle herds with respiratory diseases and/or mastitis. With this diversity of methods, and the development of new methods and formats, regular performance comparisons are required to ascertain diagnostic quality. The present study compares PCR methods that are currently used in six national veterinary institutes across Europe. Three different sample panels were compiled and analysed to assess the analytical specificity, analytical sensitivity and comparability of the different PCR methods. The results were also compared, when appropriate, to those obtained through isolation by culture. The sensitivity and comparability panels were composed of samples from bronchoalveolar fluids of veal calves, artificially contaminated or naturally infected, and hence the comparison of the different methods included the whole workflow from DNA extraction to PCR analysis. Results The participating laboratories used i) five different DNA extraction methods, ii) seven different real-time and/or end-point PCRs targeting four different genes and iii) six different real-time PCR platforms. Only one commercial kit was assessed; all other PCR assays were in-house tests adapted from published methods. The analytical specificity of the different PCR methods was comparable except for one laboratory where Mycoplasma agalactiae was tested positive. Frequently, weak-positive results with Ct values between 37 and 40 were obtained for non-target Mycoplasma strains. The limit of detection (LOD) varied from 10 to 103 CFU/ml to 103 and 106 CFU/ml for the real-time and end-point assays, respectively. Cultures were also shown to detect concentrations down to 102 CFU/ml. Although Ct values showed considerable variation with naturally infected samples, both between laboratories and tests, the final result interpretation of the samples (positive versus negative) was essentially the same between the different laboratories. Conclusion With a few exceptions, all methods used routinely in the participating laboratories showed comparable performance, which assures the quality of diagnosis, despite the multiplicity of the methods.
  • Mikkelä, A.; Ranta, J.; Tuominen, P. (2019)
    Risk Analysis 2019
    Several statistical models for salmonella source attribution have been presented in the literature. However, these models have often been found to be sensitive to the model parameterization, as well as the specifics of the data set used. The Bayesian salmonella source attribution model presented here was developed to be generally applicable with small and sparse annual data sets obtained over several years. The full Bayesian model was modularized into three parts (an exposure model, a subtype distribution model, and an epidemiological model) in order to separately estimate unknown parameters in each module. The proposed model takes advantage of the consumption and overall salmonella prevalence of the studied sources, as well as bacteria typing results from adjacent years. The latter were used for a smoothed estimation of the annual relative proportions of different salmonella subtypes in each of the sources. The source‐specific effects and the salmonella subtype‐specific effects were included in the epidemiological model to describe the differences between sources and between subtypes in their ability to infect humans. The estimation of these parameters was based on data from multiple years. Finally, the model combines the total evidence from different modules to proportion human salmonellosis cases according to their sources. The model was applied to allocate reported human salmonellosis cases from the years 2008 to 2015 to eight food sources.
  • Kontturi, M.; Junn, R.; Simojoki, H.; Malinen, E.; Seuna, E.; Klitgaard, K.; Kujala-Wirth, M.; Soveri, T.; Pelkonen, S. (2019)
    BMC Veterinary Research 2019: Vol. 15, No. 44
    Background: Severe outbreaks of bovine interdigital phlegmon (IP) have occurred recently in several free stall dairy herds in Finland. We studied the aetiology of IP in such herds, and the association of bacterial species with the various stages of IP and herds of various morbidity of IP. Nineteen free stall dairy herds with IP outbreaks and three control herds were visited and bacteriological samples collected from cows suffering from IP (n = 106), other hoof diseases (n = 58), and control cows (n = 64). The herds were divided into high morbidity (morbidity ≥50%) and moderate morbidity groups (9–33%) based on morbidity during the first two months of the outbreak. Results: F. necrophorum subspecies necrophorum was clearly associated with IP in general, and T. pyogenes was associated with the healing stage of IP. Six other major hoof pathogens were detected; Dichelobacter nodosus, Porphyromonas levii, Prevotella melaninogenica, Treponema spp. and Trueperella pyogenes. Most of the samples of acute IP (66.7%) harboured both F. necrophorum and D. nodosus. We found differences between moderate morbidity and high morbidity herds. D. nodosus was more common in IP lesion in high than in moderate morbidity herds. Conclusions: Our result confirms that F. necrophorum subspecies necrophorum is the main pathogen in IP, but also T. pyogenes is associated with the healing stage of IP. Our results suggest that D. nodosus may play a role in the severity of the outbreak of IP, but further research is needed to establish other bacteriological factors behind these severe outbreaks.
  • Hirvonen, Tero; Kynkäänniemi, Emma; Salmenhaara, Maija; Uusitalo, Liisa; Isoniemi, Merja; Suomi, Johanna; Tuominen, Pirkko (Ruokavirasto, 2019)
    Ruokaviraston tutkimuksia 1/2019
    Riskiprofiili perustuu EU-rahoitteisessa PlantLibra-projektissa kerättyn kyselyaineiston Suomea koskevaan osuuteen sekä kirjallisuudesta saatuun tietoon kasviravintolisien koostumuksesta ja niiden sisältämien yhdisteiden toksisuudesta sekä ominaisiin aineisiin mahdollisesti liittyvistä farmakokineettisistä yhteisvaikutuksista lääkeaineiden kanssa. Tarkastelltuihin ominaisiin aineisiin ei liittynyt merkittävää suoraa toksisuutta käytetyillä annoksilla. Sen sijaan moniin ominaisiin aineisiin (erityisesti inkivääri, peltokorte) liittyy merkittävä yhteisvaikutusten potentiaali, etenkin CYP3A4:n välityksellä metaboloituviin lääkeaineisiin. Koska CYP3A4:n kautta metaboloituvia lääkkeitä käytetään paljon, yhteisvaikutusten riski korostuu. Erityistä huolta liittyy varfariiniin (metaboloituu CYP2C9 ja osittain CYP3A4:n kautta), sillä sen terapeuttinen ikkuna on kapea (pitoisuudet veressä voivat helposti olla liian pieniä tai suuria). On kuitenkin huomattava, että vahvaa näyttöä farmakokineettisistä yhteisvaikutuksista on vähän, sillä käytettävissä on lähinnä in vitro -tutkimuksia kasviravintolisien sisältämien ominaisten aineiden ja lääkeaineiden välillä. Lisäksi on huomattava, että useat kasviravintolisät sisälsivät useasta kasvista peräisin olevia ominaisia aineita ja että kasviravintolsien käyttäjät käyttivät usein useita valmisteita yhdessä lääkkeiden kanssa.
  • Isomursu, M.; Koivusaari, J.; Stjernberg, T.; Venäläinen, E.-R.; Hirvelä-Koski, V. (Springer, 2018)
    The white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) suffered a severe population decline due to environmental pollutants in the Baltic Sea area ca. 50 years ago but has since been recovering. The main threats for the white-tailed eagle in Finland are now often related to human activities. We examined the human impact on the white-tailed eagle by determining mortality factors of 123 carcasses collected during 2000-2014. Routine necropsy with chemical analyses for lead and mercury were done on all carcasses. We found human-related factors accounting for 60% of the causes of death. The most important of these was lead poisoning (31% of all cases) followed by human-related accidents (e.g. electric power lines and traffic) (24%). The temporal and regional patterns of occurrence of lead poisonings suggested spent lead ammunition as the source. Lead shot was found in the gizzards of some lead-poisoned birds. Scavenging behaviour exposes the white-tailed eagle to lead from spent ammunition.
  • Hallanvuo, S.; Herranen, M.; Jaakkonen, A.; Nummela, M.; Ranta, J.; Botteldoorn, N.; De Zutter, L.; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M.; Hertwig, S.; ohannessen, G.S.; Ludewig, M.; Messelhäußer, U.; Sigvart-Mattila, P.; Thisted-Lambertz, S.; Thure, T.; Vatunen, E.; Interlaboratory study group (Elsevier, 2018)
    EN ISO 10273 method for the detection of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in foods was validated in the project Mandate M/381 funded by European Commission. A total of 14 laboratories from five European countries participated in the interlaboratory study (ILS) organized during 2013 and 2014. Before the ILS, the method was revised by an international group of experts and the performance of the revised method was assessed in an ILS study. The results are published as a part of the standard EN ISO 10273 revision. The study included three rounds with different sample types; raw milk, iceberg lettuce and minced meat, inoculated with a low and high level of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains representing major pathogenic bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9. The homogeneity and stability of the samples were verified before dispatching them to the laboratories. The results demonstrated the method sensitivity of 96% in raw milk, 97% in minced meat, and 98% in lettuce at high inoculation level of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. The specificity was 100% in raw milk, 96% in minced meat, and 98% in lettuce. The level of detection, LOD50, varied between study rounds, being 9.4 CFU/25 ml in raw milk, 9.9 CFU/25 g in minced meat and 63 CFU/25 g in lettuce samples. During the study, confirmation by using real-time PCR method ISO/TS 18867 together with pyrazinamidase testing was also validated, as alternative to conventional biochemical confirmation. When comparing different isolation steps used in the revised method during the study rounds, PSB enrichment and plating on CIN after alkaline (KOH) treatment showed the highest sensitivity (52–92%) in raw milk and minced meat samples. In lettuce samples, however, ITC with KOH treatment before plating on CIN showed higher sensitivity (64% at low level; 82% at high level) than plating on CIN from PSB with KOH treatment (44% at low level; 74% at high level). Statistical analysis of different isolation steps supported the use of two enrichment media, PSB and ITC, in the revised method. Recovery of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica on CIN was most efficient after KOH treatment and, based on the analysis, plating on CIN agar without KOH treatment could be left as optional procedure in the method.
  • Dillard, Kati J.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Fischer, Daniel; Tanhuanpää, Kimmo; Lehti, Mari S.; Vainio-Siukola, Katri; Sironen, Anu; Anttila, Marjukka (PlosOne, 2018)
    Ciliopathies presenting as inherited hepatorenal fibrocystic disorders are rare in humans and in dogs. We describe here a novel lethal ciliopathy in Norwich Terrier puppies that was diagnosed at necropsy and characterized as diffuse cystic renal disease and hepatic fibrosis. The histopathological findings were typical for cystic renal dysplasia in which the cysts were located in the straight portion of the proximal tubule, and thin descending and ascending limbs of Henle’s loop. The pedigree of the affected puppies was suggestive of an autosomal recessive inheritance and therefore, whole exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping were used for identification of the causative variant. The analyses revealed a case-specific homozygous splice donor site variant in a cilia related gene, INPP5E: c.1572+5G>A. Association of the variant with the defect was validated in a large cohort of Norwich Terriers with 3 cases and 480 controls, the carrier frequency being 6%. We observed that the identified variant introduces a novel splice site in INPP5E causing a frameshift and formation of a premature stop codon. In conclusion, our results suggest that the INPP5E: c.1572+5G>A variant is causal for the ciliopathy in Norwich Terriers. Therefore, genetic testing can be carried out in the future for the eradication of the disease from the breed.
  • Nokireki, Tiina; Tammiranta, Niina; Kokkonen, Ulla-Maija; Kantala, Tuija; Gadd, Tuija (Wiley, 2018)
    A tentative novel member of the genus Lyssavirus, designated as Kotalahti bat lyssavirus, was detected in a Brandt's bat (Myotis brandtii) in Finland. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the virus differs from other known lyssaviruses, being closely related to Khujand virus, Aravan virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus and European bat lyssavirus 2.
  • Lienemann, Taru; Beyer, Wolfgang; Pelkola, Kirsti; Rossow, Heidi; Rehn, Alexandra; Antwerpen, Markus; Grass, Gregor (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Anthrax, the zoonotic disease caused by the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is nowadays rare in northern parts of Europe including Finland and Scandinavia. Only two minor outbreaks of anthrax in 1988 and in 2004 and one sporadic infection in 2008 have been detected in animals in Finland since the 1970’s. Here, we report on two Finnish B. anthracis strains that were isolated from spleen and liver of a diseased calf related to the outbreak in 1988 (strain HKI4363/88) and from a local scrotum and testicle infection of a bull in 2008 (strain BA2968). These infections occurred in two rural Finnish regions, i.e., Ostrobothnia in western Finland and Päijänne Tavastia in southern Finland, respectively.
  • Suomi, Johanna; Suominen, Kimmo; Hirvonen, Tero; Tuominen, Pirkko (Evira, 2018)
    Eviran tutkimuksia 2/2018
    Lisäaineet ovat aineita, jotka EU on hyväksynyt käytettäväksi elintarvikkeissa mm. säilyvyyden parantamiseksi tai rakenteen, maun tai värin säätämiseksi. Osa niistä on elintarvikkeissa luonnostaan esiintyviä yhdisteitä, osa keinotekoisia. Kullekin lisäaineelle on käyttöhyväksynnän yhteydessä määritetty puhtausaste, muita laatutekijöitä sekä tehty toksikologisia tutkimuksia, jotka voivat johtaa jopa käytön kieltämiseen. Tämä riskiprofiili pyrkii kartoittamaan kuluttajien lisäainealtistuksen perustasoa kansallisen seurantajärjestelmän pohjaksi. Siinä tutkitaan kaikkia niitä lisäaineita, joille on olemassa EFSA:n määrittämä hyväksyttävän päiväsaannin enimmäismäärä (ADI). Kuluttajien altistumista arvioitiin karkeasti lisäaineasetuksessa sallittujen suurimpien käyttömäärien pohjalta. Populaatiotason arviota tarkennettiin tarvittaessa teollisuuden ilmoittamilla käyttömäärillä. Karkean altistusarvion perusteella lisäaineet jaoteltiin kahteen ryhmään: aineet, joiden saanti Suomessa on varovaisestikin arvioiden turvallisella tasolla; ja aineet joiden saantia on tarpeen tutkia tarkemmin. Jälkimmäiseen ryhmään valikoitui joitakin väri-, säilöntä- ja makeutusaineita, fosfaatteja sekä tiedon puutteiden vuoksi joitakin elintarvikkeen rakennetta muokkaavia aineita.
  • Suominen, Kimmo; Suomi, Johanna; Hirvonen, Tero; Tuominen, Pirkko (Evira, 2018)
    Eviran tutkimuksia 1/2018
    Aromilla tarkoitetaan ainetta, jota ei ole tarkoitettu kulutettavaksi sellaisenaan, mutta jota lisätään elintarvikkeeseen antamaan tai muuttamaan elintarvikkeen tuoksua tai makua. EU:ssa on hyväksytty elintarvikekäyttöön noin 2 500 kemiallisesti yksilöityä aromiainetta. Näiden lisäksi EU:n aromiasetuksessa mainitaan aromivalmisteet, paistoaromit, savuaromit, aromin lähtöaineet ja muut aromivalmisteet ja niiden seokset. Tässä raportissa selvitetään aromeja koskevaan lainsäädäntöön, arviointiin, hyväksyntään, saantiin ja käytön turvallisuuteen liittyvät pääkohdat. Aromiaineiden käytöstä aiheutuva riski on yleisesti ottaen vähäinen, koska aromiaineiden käyttömäärät elintarvikkeissa ovat yleensä pieniä ja aineet ovat kemiallisesti melko yksinkertaisia yhdisteitä, joiden aineenvaihduntatuotteet tunnetaan. Monet aromiaineet ovat luonnossa esiintyviä aineita, joita ihminen saa luontaisesti ravinnostaan. Eräillä luonnosta saatavilla aromeilla voi kuitenkin olla haitallisia ominaisuuksia ihmiselle. Joidenkin aromien saanti voi olla suurta merkkiuskollisilla kuluttajilla tai aromia sisältävien tuotteiden suurkuluttajilla. Aromien ja aromiaineiden saannin arviointi on vaikeaa, koska käytettäviin menetelmiin liittyy paljon epävarmuutta ja tieto aromien ja aromiaineiden esiintymisestä ja pitoisuuksista elintarvikkeissa on niukkaa.
  • Rönnqvist, Maria; Välttilä, Ville; Heinola, Katriina; Ranta, Jukka; Niemi, Jarkko; Tuominen, Pirkko (Evira, 2018)
    Evira Research Reports 3/2018
    Food items of animal origin, such as pork products, have been suggested as the main source of zoonotic salmonella infections in Europe. Contaminated feed can potentially introduce the pathogen into the animal-derived food chains. The prevalence of salmonella in different feeds for Finnish pigs was estimated as below 2% (medians) and on average in pigs 0.25% (mean). Feed was estimated on average as the cause of 35% of salmonella infections in fattening pigs and 55% in sows. Around 5% of the 300–400 domestic human salmonella infections reported per year were estimated as attributable to pig feeds. Year 2013 was employed as a reference. The present costs for the prevention of salmonella contamination in pig feeds were estimated at 1.8–3.0 million euros per year for the year 2013. The costs due to feed contamination, measures due to detected contamination and the resulting salmonella infections in pigs and humans were estimated at €2.4 (0.3–6.1) million annually. According to a scenario, if salmonella prevalence in Finnish pig feed would be similar to that acquired using data from other EU counties, the prevalence in fattening pigs and people could increase by 55-fold on average. If specific measures to eliminate salmonella from feed were not carried out, the costs due to preventive actions against salmonella were at least €1.1–1.8 million per year. Additionally, the costs due to the eradication of feedborne salmonella on pig farms, consequential measures at slaughterhouses, and the health costs to humans could rise to approximately €33 million per year. According to the results, the present feed salmonella control, including the preventive
  • Tuomola, Juha; Yemshanov, Denys; Huitu, Hanna; Hannunen, Salla (2018)
    Surveying multiple invasive pest species at the same time can help reduce the cost of detecting new pest invasions. In this paper, we describe a new method for mapping the relative likelihood of pest invasion via plant propagation material in a geographic setting. The method simulates the invasion of a range of pest species, including arrival in an uninvaded area, spread, and survival in a novel landscape, using information on the spatial and temporal distribution of the suitable host crop species and tentative knowledge of the spread and survival capacities of the target pests. The methodology is applied to a gridded map in which each map cell represents a site in a landscape. The method uses stochastic simulations to depict plausible realizations of the invasion outcomes and estimate the distribution of pest invasion likelihood for each cell in the area of concern. The method then prioritizes the cells based on the stochastic invasion outcomes using a pairwise stochastic dominance rule and a hypervolume indicator. We demonstrate the approach by assessing the relative likelihood of pest invasion for strawberry production in Finland. Our method helps to differentiate sites in a landscape using both the estimates of pest invasion risk and their uncertainty. It can be applied to prioritize sites for plant health surveys and allocate survey resources among large geographic regions. The approach is generalizable and can be used in situations where knowledge of the harmful pest species is poor or nonexistent.