Ruokavirasto: Recent submissions

Now showing items 1-20 of 159
  • Valsta, Liisa; Pastell, Helena; Aalto, Sanni; Virtanen, Suvi (Nordic Council of Ministers, 2017)
    TemaNord
    Quality of food composition information is of great significance considering the vast and important use of the data: for national dietary advice, for food nutrient labelling, and in epidemiological research. In order to have good quality data for foods consumed in the Nordic countries, sampling and analysis of food needs to be performed to determine the nutrient composition of interest. The Nordic Food Analysis Network project (NFAN), that was carried out between 2013–2016, focused on creating a common, simple communicational platform to share history and plans on chemical food analyses. In addition, it focused on sharing developments in the areas of new analytical methods, especially of dietary fibre, iodine and sodium (i.e. salt). An extranet site was set up, where partners updated their chemical food analysis activities, for others to observe and be aware of. The platform was found to be informative, although updating it was sometimes found to be cumbersome or forgotten. This kind of activity needs active coordination to become useful. Also, comparative analyses of fibre, iodine and sodium concentrations of selected Nordic foods were carried out with external funds and the results were shared, discussed and disseminated among the project group and a broader audience. The comparative analyses showed diverging results, even when the same analytical methods and procedures are used. A comparison, organized by the network, of the conditions in the different countries, showed several reasons for this. The main reasons for different nutrient compositions between the countries was found to be differences in fortification programmes and in animal feeding practices between the countries. The NFAN network organized three physical meetings and one open satellite symposium during the project, which served as platforms to update the partners on national developments in the field and discuss future visions – even wild ideas. The meetings were highly appreciated, partly due to the fact that the critical mass of competence, both for food composition data compilers and food chemists at the national level, in all Nordic countries, is declining. The discussions not only focused on the tasks of this project, but also served as a forum to discuss the broader challenges in the area as well as strategies to better disseminate food data and how to improve the dialogue between data providers from the food industry, and the data users and other stakeholders. For future actions, the Network has recommended that: 1) The Nordic countries should continue to keep each other informed about chemical food analysis plans to facilitate possible common analyses and to facilitate other synergistic activities and method development. Moreover, there is a continuous need for a well-structured and simple-to-use communicational platform in the future, where all the information is stored and updated. 2) New chemical analysis data should be compiled in the food composition databases and be more widely used in the future. 3) The background information on the analysed nutrient values, e.g. the sampling procedures, methods, sample description (e.g. fortification practices, animal feeding practices in the country) are crucial for the data users, and therefore, should be disseminated together with the values. 4) A common Nordic training programme for young actors in the fields of chemical food analysis and food composition data compilation should be considered, to assure high quality outputs, in the future. 5) Harmonization efforts for the production of food composition information, according to established guidelines (e.g. Greenfield & Southgate, 2003) and updated rules to calculate the activity of nutrients (Institute of Medicine 2000, Nordic Council of Ministers 2012), should be continued. 6) Re-evaluation of the rules and procedures for use of existing food composition data should be carried out. This could be done by performing an updated evaluation on the handling of the nutrient values, i.e. to carry out an update of the former Norfoods 2000 project (Norfoods 2000-project group, 2002).
  • Christensen, Tue; Nielsen, Cecilie Wirenfeldt; Valsta, Liisa; Aalto, Sanni; Haario, Peppi; Reinivuo, Heli; Virtanen, Suvi; Pastell, Helena; Nieminen, Janne; Reykdal, Ólafur; Axelsson, Cecilia; Petrelius-Sipinen, Jessica; Kielland, Ellen; Østerholt Dalane, Jorån; Hauger Carlsen, Monica; Salupuu, Kristin; Jõgi, Änn (Nordic Council of Ministers, 2020)
    TemaNord
    This report describes the activities of two projects that were carried out using the infrastructure of the Nordic Food Analysis Network, i.e. the ‘Nordic Food Composition Data for Labelling (NordCoLa)’ project carried out between 2018 and 2020, and the preceding project ‘Fostering the quality and use of Nordic food composition data’, carried out under the Finnish Presidency of the NCM in 2016. The primary aim of the NordCoLa project was to evaluate the needs, synergies and critical points of the Nordic FCDBs (e.g. food ingredient and nutrient value gaps) in relation to the composition data to be used to implement the new European nutrient labelling legislation. This was to ensure quality food composition data in the Nordic countries for food producers and other users for nutrient labelling purposes. The most important gaps were evaluated and summarised by this project. This project included an exercise comparing calculated and analysed nutrient information of selected Nordic food samples. This information was then compared with the acceptable tolerance limits in use in the EU. As part of the projects, two open seminars were organised in Helsinki; the first one on 16 October 2016 and the second on 17 April 2019. The seminars gathered a total of around 150 participants together to hear about challenges in the area of food composition data and their use in food labelling and related quality issues. In addition, the project included research on food label information in order to evaluate the usefulness of the Mintel Global New Products’ Database (Mintel GNPD) and GS1 in the work of updating and compiling information used in food composition databases. The network’s main conclusions and strategical proposals are as follows: • There is a need for more analyses and continuous compiling work in order to ensure updated FCDBs for the users. Opportunities for Nordic collaboration in food analyses should be carefully evaluated. • More industrial ingredients need to be analysed and added to FCDBs. Obtaining such information is important to keep the databases useful, especially for SMEs in the food business. • The calculated values are of overall good quality when compared with analysed values, with the exception of protein, sugars and salt. This warrants more attention to take carbohydrates and especially simple sugars into account when planning future national food analysis programmes. Collecting more information on salt content and comparing it with the analysed information on food products is also needed. • There is no legislation for the methods to be used in the food analysis. This means that different methods are used and even different components may be measured resulting variation in nutrient contents. Sugars are an example of that, since different techniques measure total sugar content or different 7 sugar components separately and both ways are accepted for labelling purposes. • Calculating nutrient contents of food items according to a standardised method is a good and affordable way of producing values for food composition databases and food labelling purposes, if the data quality of the FCDBs are based on analysed values. • The acceptable variation in nutrient label information based on EC legislation tolerances is very large. The tolerances may even threaten the meaningful reformulation of food products and reliable consumer information due to uncertainties over the labelled nutrient values. • More information is needed regarding the validity of nutrient labelling at the Nordic and European level. To avoid misleading consumer information, food analyses should be used to check the validity of nutrient labelling and to monitor reformulation efforts. • Nutrient label data from commercial food label databases, for example, is not recommended to be used, in general, for updating nutrient values of foods in the national FCDBs. However, such databases were found to be partially useful in updating the coverage, i.e. food lists of national FCDBs, if the used databases cover most of the national market. • Nordic collaboration should be further intensified in the fields of analysing nutrient content of missing ingredients in FCDBs, harmonising nutrient label calculation procedures and proposing improvements to the European legislation concerning tolerances of nutrient values in labelling.
  • Lahtinen, Maria; Oinonen, Markku (Archaeological Society of Finland, 2022)
    Monographs of the Archaeological Society of Finland
  • Kantar TNS Agro, Oy (Ruokavirasto, 2022)
  • Lehtonen, Mikko; Tuomola, Juha; Latvala, Satu; Hannukkala, Asko; Hokka, Marjo; Alainen, Tarja; Tegel, Jukka; Virtanen, Atro; Maunuksela, Liisa (Ruokavirasto, 2022)
  • Lehtonen, Mikko; Tuomola, Juha; Latvala, Satu; Hannukkala, Asko; Hokka, Marjo; Alainen, Tarja; Tegel, Jukka; Virtanen, Atro; Maunuksela, Liisa (Ruokavirasto, 2022)
  • Uusitalo, Maria; Heinimaa, Petri; Rask, Marjukka; Eriksson-Kallio, Anna Maria; Holopainen, Riikka; Viljamaa-Dirks, Satu; Lyytikäinen, Tapani (Ruokavirasto, 2022)
    Ruokaviraston tutkimuksia 2/2022
    Kalojen ylisiirrot ovat yksi kalataloudellinen hoitotoimenpide vaelluskalakantojen elvyttämisessä. Ylisiirrossa emokaloja siirretään jokeen: nousuesteen alapuolelta yläpuolisiin vesistöihin, jotta ne pääsevät lisääntymisalueilleen. Projektissa laadittiin riskiprofiili, jossa kuvataan ylisiirtoprosessi kolmella joella (Kemijoki, IIjoki ja Oulujoki) ja tarkasteluun valittujen kalatautien (IHN, IPN, ISA, SAV ja VHS) leviämisriskiin liittyviä seikkoja ylisiirroissa käytettyjen lajien (lohi, taimen, nahkiainen) osalta. Lisäksi pyrittiin tunnistamaan prosessiin liittyvät riskitekijät ja riskinhallintakeinot. Merestä sisävesistöihin tehtävät ylisiirrot ovat riippuvaisia tautitilanteesta - tällä hetkellä ylisiirrot ovat luvanvaraisia. Lohi ja meritaimen tekevät pitkän syönnösvaelluksen, minkä aikana ne voivat kohdata luonnossa esiintyviä tauteja. Lohen syönnösvaellus ulottuu pidemmälle ja se voi kohdata tauteja laajemmalla alueella kuin meritaimen, joka vaeltaa lähellä rannikkoa. Jos kala sairastuu syönnösvaelluksen aikana, sen kyky palata takaisin jokeen alenee mm. uimiskyvyn heikkenemisen vuoksi. On kuitenkin mahdollista, että jokisuuhun palaa syönnösvaellukselta kala, joka voi tartuttaa tauteja muihin kaloihin. Palaavalla kalalla ei välttämättä ole ulkoisia merkkejä kantamastaan viruksesta. Arvioinnissa mukana olleiden jokien ylisiirroissa piilevä tautiriski vaikuttaa suhteellisen pieneltä, koska kalatautiseurantaa on tehty jo pitkään eikä tautilöydöksiä ole ilmennyt. Itämeri on kuitenkin avoin järjestelmä ja uusia tauteja voi tulla Itämereen niin luonnonkalojen liikkeiden kuin kalanviljelyn kautta. Nykyiset seurantamäärät kestävät suhteellisen hyvin myös tämän tekijän tuoman epävarmuuden tautien esiintyvyyteen. Jos seuranta lopetetaan, varmuus tautivapaudesta ryhtyy alenemaan. Niinpä seurantaa ei kannata lopettaa edes näiden jokien osalta. Jotta kalatautautiriski ja sen mahdolliset muutokset tunnetaan, kalatautinäytteiden säännöllinen ottaminen ja tutkiminen on tärkeää. Näytteeksi tulee toimittaa sairaiden yksilöiden lisäksi ulkoisesti terveen näköisiä kaloja, koska virustaudit eivät välttämättä näy ulkoisesti. Myös jokisuilla, niissä vesistöissä, joissa vasta suunnitellaan ylisiirtoja, tulisi tehdä ennakkoon kalatautiseurantaa.
  • Eriksson-Kallio, Anna Maria (Finnish Food Authority, 2022)
    Finnish Food Authority Research Reports 1/2022
    Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is a highly contagious viral disease of fish causing economic losses in farmed salmonid aquaculture worldwide. This research aimed to elucidate the epidemiological, pathological and genetic factors underlying IPNV infection occurring in farmed fish in Finland. The work was carried out by describing the epidemiology of an IPNV outbreak in Finnish inland waters in 2012–2014 and by characterizing the Finnish IPNV isolates occurring in inland waters using genetic, histopathological and immunological approaches. Furthermore, molecular characterization of Finnish IPNV isolates collected in 2000–2015 was performed. Finally, an infection trial was conducted to gather further information on the pathogenicity of three IPN genogroups in Finnish rainbow trout. IPNV genogroups 2, 5 and 6 have been found to occur in Finland. Of these, genogroup 2 is the most widespread. All three genogroups occur in the sea area. The IPNV epidemic starting in 2012 in inland waters was caused by genogroup 2. Retrospectively, a genetically similar viral strain to that of the inland strains was already found to occur in 2011 in the sea area, making it likely that the epidemic originated from the sea area. Molecular characterization of the isolated IPN viruses revealed little genetic variation within the Finnish genogroup 2 and 5 isolates. Finnish genogroup 2 isolates appeared to form their own subgroup, whereas genogroup 5 isolates formed a more consistent cluster with previously published isolates. Genogroup 6 consisted of two subgroups. The divergence of genogroup 6 IPNV within the aquabirnaviruses was further demonstrated by the sequence data from our studies. Prior to our studies, only partial VP1 genogroup 6 IPNV sequences were available at the NCBI GenBank. In our study, two IPNV genogroup 6 isolates were sequenced for the complete coding regions of viral genome segments A and B (polyprotein sequences). The Finnish IPNV isolates studied demonstrated virulence-associated amino acid patterns in the viral capsid protein (VP2) gene region previously associated with avirulence in genogroup 5, except for IPNV genogroup 6, which exhibits an amino acid pattern that has not been connected in the literature with either virulence or avirulence. In the infection trial, mortalities noted in all the treatment groups were only moderate at most. The highest mortalities were caused by the Finnish IPNV genogroup 5 (10.3% to 38.2%), whereas IPNV genogroup 2 caused variable mortalities (3.5% to 28.3%) and the Norwegian IPNV genogroup 5 virus used as a positive control caused only negligible mortalities. The IPNV genogroup 6 virus was not re-isolated in the infection trial, although some elevated mortalities were seen in one tank (8%), leaving the virulence of this genogroup still uncertain. Finnish inland waters harbour the most IPNV-susceptible life stages of fish, and here, an infection caused by a virulent strain of IPNV would thus potentially have the greatest negative economic impact on Finnish rainbow trout farming. Continuation of the legislative disease control of IPN genogroup 5 in Finnish inland waters is thus supported by this study. In general, IPN is considered a coldwater disease, with a peak in clinical disease and increased mortality at 10 °C. However, in Finland, the occurrence of virus at exceptionally high temperatures, with clinical signs of disease and histopathological changes typical of IPN, was noted at water temperatures as high as 21°C. The occurrence of IPNV in higher water temperatures has economic consequences, as it lengthens the susceptible time period for the disease. Moreover, rising water temperatures and longer warm water periods due to global warming may increase the disease-causing importance of this genogroup in the future.
  • Hokkanen, Mirja (Finnish Food Authority, 2021)
    Finnish Food Authority Research Reports 2/2021
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in food poses a potential risk to human health. PAHs are formed primarily as a result of incomplete combustion of organic material and can enter the food chain either from the environment or from food manufacturing processes such as smoking, roasting, drying and grilling. As some of them are known to cause cancer, it is important to reduce the PAH levels in foods as low as is reasonably achievable. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has evaluated the sum of PAH4 compounds (=benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benz[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHR) and benzo[b] fuoranthene (BbF)) to serve as a suitable indicator of both the occurrence and toxicity of the PAHs. The primary purpose of this dissertation study was to assess for the frst time Finnish children’s potential health risk caused by dietary exposure to PAH4. In order to complete this task, the applied analytical method must be appropriately validated to be able to produce precise occurrence data. In this study, the gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was successfully validated according to legislative requirements and the occurrence of PAH4 in a wide range of food groups (fsh, meat, fat and oil, bread, cereal and muesli) was determined. Generally, the concentrations of PAH4 in foods were low and below the prevailing maximum levels. That being said, in smoked fsh and meat products, the variation of the detected PAH4 levels was high, up to 200 µg/kg in smoked ham. It appeared that the smoking process was either controlled or not, and the science-based guidance is required to prevent and reduce contamination of PAHs. Therefore, our goal was to investigate the critical smoking factors that afect the PAH4 formation in fsh and meat products in order to provide tools for manufacturers to produce safer smoked products, thereby decreasing human dietary exposure and adverse health efects. Based on our results, indirect smoking, smoking in less than fve hours, optimised smoke generation temperature between 400 and 600 °C and distance more than fve metres between the food and the smoke source led to reduced PAH4 levels in smoked fsh and meat products. This study aimed to gain a better understanding of the potential mutagenicity of the processed foods, and therefore selected fsh and meat products were tested by the Ames test in Salmonella TA 100 and TA 98 strains with or without metabolic activation. The outcome was further compared to the chemical PAH4 analyses. The statistically signifcant mutagenic response was observed in all three lots of smoked Baltic herring, which also indicated higher PAH4 concentrations than other samples. By contrast, the tested meat products were not mutagenic and the corresponding individual PAH4 concentrations were, for the most part, undetectable. Despite the challenges in food mutagenicity testing, our results provided more information on the potential mutagenic activity of various foods. Specifcally, based on our fndings, a combination of both biological assays and chemical analyses can improve the interpretation of the fndings regarding mutagenicity. Lastly, in reference to our primary purpose of considering potential safety concerns of PAH4 in food, Finnish children’s dietary exposure to PAH4 was evaluated by combining the acquired occurrence and food consumption data. Utilising that data, a margin of exposure (MOE) was calculated in order to be used to provide relative indication of the level of health concern and support prioritisation of possible risk management actions. Our results demonstrated that bread, smoked ham, fat and oil and sausage contributed the most to BaP and PAH4 exposure. Even though the mean PAH4 levels in bread were below the limit of detection, its consumption volumes are high, which explains the contribution. Children’s total mean dietary exposure was estimated to BaP 1,500 pg/kg bw/day and to PAH4 8,100 pg/kg bw/day. The total margins of exposure (MOEs) for children were 482,000 for BaP and 42,000 for PAH4. Furthermore, the calculated MOEs for highly exposed children were also above the reference value 10,000, which caused them to be considered of low concern. Taking into account uncertainties and limitations, this study indicated no health risk to Finnish children aged three to six years.
  • Pihlajasaari, Annika; Leinonen, Elina; Markkula, Annukka; Miettinen, Ilkka (THL); Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska (THL); Summa, Maija; Zacheus, Outi (THL) (Ruokavirasto, 2021)
    Ruokaviraston julkaisuja 7/2021
    Vuosina 2017–2019 Ruokaviraston ylläpitämään elintarvike- ja vesivälitteisten epidemioiden rekisteriin luokiteltiin tehtyjen epidemiaselvitysten perusteella yhteensä 169 elintarvike- tai talousvesivälitteistä epidemiaa, joista 96 % oli elintarvikevälitteisiä. Talousvesivälitteisiä epidemioita raportoitiin samana ajanjaksona 7. Elintarvikkeiden välityksellä ilmoitettiin sairastuneen yhteensä 2 900 henkilöä ja talousveden välityksellä 567 henkilöä. Kuten aikaisemminkin 2000-luvulla, norovirus oli vuosina 2017–2019 yleisin raportoitu elintarvikevälitteisten epidemioiden aiheuttaja. Norovirus aiheutti 57 (35 %) elintarvikevälitteistä epidemiaa. Suurimmat elintarvikevälitteiset epidemiat aiheutti norovirus hoitolaitosruokailun välityksellä vuonna 2018 (292 ja 110 sairastunutta). Yleisimmät raportoidut välittäjäelintarvikkeet olivat kala ja kalavalmisteet sisältäen äyriäiset ja simpukat. Ne aiheuttivat 14 (9 %) epidemiaa. Toiseksi yleisin välittäjä oli liha ja lihavalmisteet sekä kasvikset ja niistä valmistetut tuotteet (kumpikin 12 epidemiaa; 7 %). Yli 70 %:ssa epidemioista välittäjäelintarvike jäi tuntemattomaksi tai välittäjäksi epäiltiin useita ruokia. Saastuneen raaka-aineen käytöllä oli selvä yhteys 33 (20 %) epidemian syntyyn. Raportoiduista epidemioista 22 %:n taustalla oli lämpötilaan ja säilytysaikaan liittyviä puutteita ja virheitä. Infektoituneen keittiötyöntekijän osallistuminen ruoanvalmistukseen ja puutteellinen käsihygienia oli syynä 19 %:iin elintarvikevälitteisistä epidemioista ja näissä melkein kaikissa tapauksissa aiheuttajana oli norovirus. Elintarvikevälitteisten epidemioiden tapahtumapaikaksi raportoitiin useimmiten ravintola, kahvila tai hotelli (90 kpl; 56 %) ja toiseksi yleisimmin koti (12 kpl; 7 %). Norovirukset aiheuttivat suurimman osan (3 kpl) tunnistetuista talousvesiepidemioista. Yhdessä epidemiassa epäiltiin sapovirusta aiheuttajaksi. Suurin talousvesivälitteinen epidemia havaittiin Nousiaisissa vuonna 2018. Sairastuneita raportoitiin 463. Taudinaiheuttajiksi epäiltiin mm. sapoviruksia. Vuosien 2017–2019 aikana taudinaiheuttaja jäi tuntemattomaksi 67 (41 %) elintarvikevälitteisessä ja kolmessa talousvesiepidemiassa. Uimavesivälitteisten epidemioiden raportointi alkoi vuonna 2012. Suomessa raportoitiin vuosina 2017– 2019 neljä uimavesivälitteistä epidemiaa, joissa sairastui noin 200 henkilöä. Kolme epidemioista aiheutui noroviruksen ja yksi kampylobakteerin saastuttamasta uimavedestä tai uimarantaympäristöstä. Ulostevahingon saastuttamalla allasvedellä oli mahdollinen yhteys kylpyläympäristön epidemiaan. Jätevedellä saastunut luonnonvesi aiheutti yhden epidemian. Kahdessa uimarantaympäristöön liittyneessä epidemiassa uimaveden saastumisen syytä ei saatu selville.
  • Lehtonen, Mikko; Tuomola, Juha; Latvala, Satu; Hannukkala, Asko; Hokka, Marjo; Alainen, Tarja; Tegel, Jukka; Virtanen, Atro; Maunuksela, Liisa (Ruokavirasto, 2021)
    Ruokaviraston tutkimuksia 3/2021
    Perunan käsittelyprosesseissa päätuotteen ohessa syntyvät jakeet eli sivuvirrat muodostavat merkittävän osan elintarvikkeena ja teollisuuden raaka-aineena käytettävän perunan kokonaismäärästä. Sivuvirtojen hyödyntäminen, esimerkiksi lannoitteena, on tärkeää ympäristön, ravinteiden kierron ja tuottavuuden kannalta. Lannoitekäyttöön saattaa kuitenkin sisältyä riski kasvintuhoojien leviämisestä lannoitteiden mukana. Kasvinterveyslainsäädäntö ja EU:n teollisuusjärjestöjen sisämaakaupan vaatimukset rajoittavat kasvintuhoojien esiintymistä raaka-aineessa, ja tuhoojien leviämistä lannoitevalmisteiden mukana pyritään ehkäisemään lainsäädännön asettamien käsittelyvaatimusten avulla. Lannoitelainsäädännön vaatimusten mukaiset käsittelyt tehoavat suurimpaan osaan mutteivät kaikkiin perunan, kasvinosien ja maan välityksellä leviäviin kasvintuhoojiin. Lisäksi tutkimattomia kasvintuhoojia on suuri joukko. Sivuvirtojen lannoitekäytön kasvinterveysriskien arviointia vaikeuttavat tietopuutteet kasvintuhoojien esiintymisestä raaka-aineessa, haitallisesta määrästä ja joidenkin kasvintuhoojien osalta eliminointiin tarvittavasta käsittelystä. Jatkossa sivuvirtojen lannoitekäytön hyötyhaittasuhdetta yhteiskunnalle, ympäristölle ja viljelijöille pitäisi selvittää tarkemmin.
  • Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Kivilahti-Mäntylä, Katariina; Eskola, Katarina; Olkkola, Satu; Pohjanvirta, Tarja; Biström, Mia; Grönthal, Thomas; Kaartinen, Liisa; Kalenius, Saija; Helin-Soilevaara, Henriette; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja; Pekkanen, Katariina; Muhonen, Tita-Maria (Finnish Food Authority, 2021)
    Finnish Food Authority publications 6/2021
    Sales of antibiotics for use in animals in Finland in 2020 were lower than ever reported. The decreased sales from 2019 to 2020 was largely attributed to decreased manufacturing of medicated feed to fur animals. The majority, almost three quarters, of all antimicrobial products were given to individual animals, and products intended for group treatment accounted for just over one quarter. The most-sold antimicrobial continues to be injectable penicillin followed by orally administered sulfonamide-trimethoprim combinations and orally administered tetracyclines. Sales of reserve antimicrobials (HPCIA, WHO list ) for the treatment of animals remained very low also in 2020. The antibiotic resistance situation in bacteria from animals and food has remained relatively good in Finland. However, in certain bacterial species resistance was detected in moderate or high levels. Therefore, the need remains to further emphasise the preventive measures and prudent use of antibiotics. It is important to follow the Finnish recommendations for the use of antimicrobials in animals. Among salmonella and campylobacter from Finnish food-producing animals, resistance levels were low. Since 2014, the proportions of fluoroquinolone and tetracycline resistant broiler campylobacter isolates have varied. In bovine campylobacters, especially fluoroquinolone resistance has increased in the 2010’s. Resistance situation among indicator E. coli from broilers and cattle has remained good. The prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria in slaughtered broilers and in broiler meat at retail has decreased significantly and was very low in 2020. ESBL/AmpC bacteria were detected at low level from slaughtered cattle. The development of resistance situation among pathogenic bacteria isolated from food-producing animals varied between bacterial species but changes were overall small. Resistant isolates were still detected most commonly among enterotoxigenic E. coli from pigs. Among bacteria isolated from companion animals, the development of resistance situation varied during the follow-up period, and the slow decrease in resistance did not continue as clearly. Among canine E. coli strains that were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, the relative proportion of AmpC producers increased, and ESBL strains were less common.
  • Suomi, Johanna; Uusitalo, Liisa; Suominen, Kimmo; Hirvonen, Tero; Heikkinen, Tia; Tuominen, Pirkko (Ruokavirasto, 2021)
    Ruokaviraston tutkimuksia 1/2021
    Tämän työn tarkoituksena oli asettaa suomalaisen kuluttajan kannalta tärkeysjärjestykseen ne elintarvikkeiden vierasaineet, joiden pitoisuuksia valvotaan asetuksen (EY) N:o 1881/2006 nojalla tai jotka mainitaan Euroopan Komission monitorointisuosituksissa. Tärkeysjärjestys määräytyi aineen aiheuttaman terveyshaitan vakavuuden ja suurkuluttajalle koituvan riskin suuruuden perusteella. Tärkeimmiksi arvioitiin syöpävaaralliset aineet (ympäristömyrkyt, homemyrkyt tai prosessoinnissa syntyvät aineet), joille altistutaan siinä määrin, että syöpien lisääntyminen väestössä on todennäköistä. Kerta-annoksella haitallisista vierasaineista tärkeimmät olivat soluhengityksen salpaavat tai sydämen lyöntitiheyttä hidastavat vierasaineet, joille altistuminen saattaisi pahimmillaan johtaa riskiryhmään kuuluvan kuolemaan. Valvonnan suunnittelun tueksi kartoitettiin myös, mistä elintarvikeryhmistä kunkin vierasaineen pitoisuuksien seuranta ja määrittäminen olisi oleellisinta kansallisesta näkökulmasta. Arviossa otettiin huomioon ainekohtaisen prioriteettilistan lisäksi kansallisten aineistojen ikä ja kattavuus, vierasaineiden pitoisuudet eri elintarvikeryhmissä, kuluttajien suurimmat altistuslähteet sekä se, poikkeavatko Suomessa mitatut pitoisuudet selkeästi EU-keskiarvoista. Raporttiin sisältyy englanninkielinen yhteenvetoluku tärkeimmistä tuloksista.
  • Vennerström, Pia (Finnish Food Authority, 2020)
    Finnish Food Authority Research Reports 3/2020
    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) was isolated for the first time in Finland in 2000 from a Finnish brackish water fish farm farming rainbow trout in net pens in the Province of Åland, Baltic Sea. The efforts to eradicate the disease from the Åland islands were not successful. Epidemical factors, needed for VHS management in viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) positive brackish water fish farms, were studied in a 3-year project, the results of which are presented in this thesis. The study compared the ability of four different surveillance procedures and three diagnostic tests to reveal whether a fish population was infected with VHSV. The programme that was conducted as syndromic surveillance, where the farmers sent in samples for diagnostics if any signs of possible fish disease were noticed, clearly outperformed the other three programmes, which were based on active surveillance. A real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method proved to be at least as sensitive in detecting acute VHSV infections as virus isolation in cell culture, which is considered the gold-standard method for diagnosing VHSV. An ELISA method was used to test fish serums for antibodies against VHSV and was found to be a promising tool in VHSV eradication, particularly for screening populations during the follow-up period, before declaring an area free of infection. During the epidemics it was a common suspicion wild fish being the most likely source of the reinfections of VHSV in infected fish farms in the restriction area. Wild fish of 17 different species from VHS-positive fish farms were screened for VHSV during 2005-2008. In addition, uninfected wild perch, roach and farmed whitefish were introduced to a fish farm with rainbow trout experiencing a clinical outbreak of VHS. The wild fish did not test positive on any occasion, but whitefish were infected and started to replicate VHSV for a short time. The replication of the virus in whitefish was verified using a new qRT-PCR method that tests separately for positive- and negative-sense viral sequences in infected organ samples. The presence of VHSV in the environment on fish farms or processing plants farming or handling VHSV-positive fish was studied by testing samples for VHSV from wild blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) living in infected fish farms. Sea water and sediment from infected fish farms were also tested for VHSV. Wild uninfected blue mussels were also challenged with VHSV in two different challenge tests. Wastewater from a processing plant was tested before and after disinfection treatment. Blue mussels were not found to be carriers of VHSV on any occasion. Sea water tested positive for VHSV RNA more often during the wintertime when water temperature was close to 0°C and sunlight (UV light) sparse. Most wastewater samples collected before the disinfection treatment were positive for VHSV, but samples collected after disinfection were all negative regarding VHSV RNA. Contacts between the processing plants and the fish farms in the restriction area of VHS were very common during this study. Processing plants are usually the place where fish food and farming equipment are stored, including boats that are used for the daily servicing of the farming localities. According to the results of this study, this contact was considered a major risk for disease spread, especially during the cold part of the year when daylight is also short. Altogether, this thesis compiles the results of a series of studies targeting factors that could affect the infection pressure of VHSV on disease free fish populations.
  • Hirvonen, Tero; Hokkanen, Mirja; Mikkelä, Antti; Pasonen, Petra; Uusitalo, Liisa; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Korkalo, Liisa; Tuominen, Pirkko (Ruokavirasto, 2020)
    Ruokaviraston tutkimuksia 2/2020
    Riskinarvioinnissa tarkasteltiin leivästä, muroista ja mysleistä sekä savustetuista liha- ja kalatuotteista peräisin olevien PAH-yhdisteiden aiheuttamaa syövän riskiä sekä lainsäädännöllisten rajojen potentiaalista vaikutusta PAH-altistukseen. Ruoankäyttöaineistona käytettiin DAGIS-tutkimuksessa kerättyjä ruokapäiväkirjoja (n=815) Uudellamaalla ja Keski-Pohjanmaalla. Elintarvikkeiden PAH-pitoisuustiedot olivat peräisin tieteellisestä kirjallisuudesta sekä Evirassa vuosina 2012–2017 tehdyistä analyyseistä. Altistuksen arvioinnissa käytettiin bayesiläistä mallinnusta. Riskinluonnehdinnassa laskettiin turvamarginaali (MOE) EFSA:n julkaisemien BMDL10- annoskuvaajien (BMDL10(bentso[a]pyreeni)=0,07 mg/kg/päivä; BMDL10(PAH4)=0,34 mg/kg/päivä) ja altistuksen osamääränä. Hyväksyttävän turvamarginaalin alarajana oli 10 000. Keskiarvoaltistus oli bentso[a]pyreenille 1 400 pg/kg/päivä ja PAH4:lle 8 100 pg/kg/päivä, kun käytettiin elintarvikkeiden keskimääräistä pitoisuutta. Vastaavasti altistuksen 97,5. persentiilit olivat 2 700 pg/kg/päivä ja 14 000 pg/kg/päivä. Turvamarginaalien 2,5. persentiilit olivat bentso[a]pyreenille 263 000 ja PAH4:lle 24 000, joten PAH-yhdisteet eivät aiheuta tarkastelluista elintarvikkeista terveysriskiä suomalaisille 3–6-vuotialle lapsille.
  • Suomi, Johanna; Valsta, Liisa; Suominen, Kimmo; Tuominen, Pirkko (Ruokavirasto, 2020)
    Ruokaviraston tutkimuksia 1/2020
    Riskinarvioinnissa tutkittiin suomalaisten työikäisten ja eläkeläisten elintarvikkeista ja talousvedestä saamaa altistusta kadmiumille, lyijylle, arseenille, elohopealle, nikkelille ja alumiinille. Aikuisten altistus on vähäisempää kuin lasten (arvioitu aiemmin: Eviran tutkimuksia 2/2015), mutta turvallisen saannin raja ylittyi silti osalla väestöstä. Lyijyn ja epäorgaanisen arseenin saanti oli suuruusluokkaa, jolla terveyshaittojen vaikutusta ei voi sulkea pois, mutta niiden todennäköisyys on pieni tai enintään kohtuullinen. Joka viidennellä yli 45-vuotiaalla naisella osteoporoottisen murtuman riski on kasvanut kadmiumaltistuksen vuoksi, vaikka lannoitteiden kadmiumpitoisuuksia rajoitetaan kansallisesti altistuksen vähentämiseksi. Eniten eri raskasmetalleille altistuivat hedelmällisessä iässä olevat, ts. 25–45-vuotiaat, naiset. Elohopea-altistus tällä ryhmällä oli kuitenkin vähäistä. Riskinarvioinnissa tutkittiin altistuksen suuruuden ja lähteiden lisäksi ruoankäytön havaittujen muutosten vaikutusta kuluttajien altistukseen. Finravinto-tutkimusten 2007 ja 2012 perusteella arvioidun altistuksen lisäksi tehtiin karkea arvio EAT-Lancet Commissionin suositteleman ruokavalion mahdollisesta vaikutuksesta kuluttajien altistukseen.
  • Finnish Food Authority (Finnish Food Authority, 2021)
    Finnish Food Authority publications 5/2021
    This report presents the 2020 results of regulatory control related to food safety, official controls and monitoring programmes on food and feed as well as research and risk assessments. The report also assesses, based on the results, the status of food safety and future needs for regulatory activities in Finland. The report extends the annual report referred to in the EU Control Regulation (EU) No. 2017/625 on official controls with respect to food safety; the annual report describes the results of the control in the various sectors of the food supply chain as a whole. The results of official controls and investigations from 2020 show that food safety is at a good level in Finland despite the COVID-19 pandemic. Domestic products do not contain such quantities of chemical substances that would be hazardous for the consumer and the level of food poisoning bacteria in the food studied is very low. In 2020 the number of food-borne epidemics was significantly lower than in previous years. For the first time the fight against crime in the food chain was incorporated into the national strategy and action plan for combating grey economy and economic crime for 2020–2023. The control activities planned by the food control authorities were mainly achieved. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic and restrictions and limitations the inspections, sampling and research could be carried out almost as planned. Remote inspections were introduced and controls were made to be more risk-based. The number of food recalls has increased dramatically for both domestic, internal market and third country products. Recalls are an indication of the effectiveness and responsibility of both official controls as well as own-check activities practised by companies.
  • Finnish Food Authority (Finnish Food Authority, 2019)
    Finnish Food Authority publications 7/2019
    This publication contains information on the incidence of animal diseases to be combated and the prevalence of certain other infections in various animal species in Finland in 2017. The publication also describes the measures taken to prevent and combat animal diseases. The animal disease situation remained good overall, but new diseases were also detected. Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 amongst wild birds continued to occur during springtime. At the end of the year a highly contagious fish disease IHN was detected in four rainbow trout holdings. One Brant’s bat was found positive of bat rabies caused by a new type of lyssavirus. New cases of salmonella were found on 18 farms and Mycoplasma bovis infections were again found in dairy farms. Finland remained free of strategically important animal diseases such as enzootic bovine leucosis, brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis, IBR and BVD infections, PRRS infections in swine and Echinococcus multilocularis infection. The preparedness was especially targeted at combating African swine fever, avian influenza and rabies and was tested in a joint simulation exercise with the Nordic and Baltic countries.
  • Ruokavirasto (Ruokavirasto, 2021)
    Ruokaviraston julkaisuja 4/2021
    Tämä julkaisu sisältää tietoa Suomen eläintautitilanteesta vuonna 2020. Julkaisuun on koottu ajankohtaista tietoa vastustettavien eläintautien ja eräiden muiden tartuntojen esiintymisestä eri eläinlajeilla maassamme. Julkaisussa kuvataan myös tehtyjä toimenpiteitä eläintautien ennaltaehkäisemiseksi ja torjumiseksi. Eläintautitilanne säilyi hyvänä Suomessa vuonna 2020. Helposti leviäviä tai vaarallisia eläintauteja ei todettu. Suomessa uutta eläintautia, myksomatoosia, todettiin kuolleena löytyneestä villikaniinista. Myksomatoosi on kaniinien virustauti, jota esiintyy ympäri maailmaa. COVID-19-pandemia vaikutti monin tavoin sektorin toimintaan ja kun SARS-CoV-2 -viruksen todettiin tarttuvan myös useisiin eläinlajeihin, jouduttiin varautumaan mahdollisiin tartuntoihin eläimissä. Suomessa ei kuitenkaan todettu uuden koronaviruksen aiheuttamia tartuntoja eläimillä. Suomi säilyi vapaana strategisesti tärkeiksi katsotuista eläintaudeista kuten nautaleukoosista, luomistaudista ja nautatuberkuloosista, nautojen IBR- ja BVD-tartunnoista, sikojen PRRS:stä sekä Echinococcus multilocularis -tartunnoista. Eläintautivarautumista kohdistettiin erityisesti SARS-CoV-2-tartunnan, afrikkalaisen sikaruton ja rabieksen torjuntaan.
  • Ruokavirasto (Ruokavirasto, 2021)
    Ruokaviraston julkaisuja 3/2021
    Tässä raportissa kerrotaan elintarviketurvallisuuteen liittyvän viranomaisvalvonnan, elintarvikkeiden ja rehujen virallisten valvonta- ja seurantaohjelmien, tutkimusten ja riskinarviointien tuloksista vuodelta 2020, sekä arvioidaan niiden perusteella Suomen elintarviketurvallisuustilannetta ja viranomaistoiminnan tulevaisuuden tarpeita. Raportti syventää elintarviketurvallisuuden osalta EU:n virallista valvontaa koskevan asetuksen (EU) 2017/625 edellyttämää vuosiraporttia, jossa kuvataan valvonnan tulokset koko elintarvikeketjun eri sektoreilla. Viranomaisvalvonnan ja -tutkimusten tulokset vuodelta 2020 osoittavat, että elintarviketurvallisuus on Suomessa hyvällä tasolla COVID-19 pandemiasta huolimatta. Kotimaassa tuotetut tuotteet eivät sisällä kuluttajalle vaarallisia määriä kemiallisia aineita, ja ruokamyrkytyksiä aiheuttavia bakteereita esiintyy hyvin vähän tutkituissa elintarvikkeissa. Elintarvikevälitteisten epidemioiden määrä oli vuonna 2020 merkittävästi aikaisempia vuosia alhaisempi. Elintarvikeketjun rikollisuuden torjunta otettiin ensimmäistä kertaa osaksi kansallista harmaan talouden ja talousrikollisuuden torjunnan strategiaa ja toimenpideohjelmaa vuosille 2020–2023. Elintarvikeviranomaisten suunniteltu valvonta toteutui pääosin. COVID-19 pandemiasta sekä rajoituksista ja rajoitteista huolimatta tarkastukset, näytteenotto ja tutkimus pystyttiin toteuttamaan lähes suunnitellun mukaisesti. Etätarkastukset otettiin käyttöön, ja valvontaa suunnattiin entistä riskiperusteisemmin. Elintarvikkeiden takaisinvetojen määrä on kasvanut voimakkaasti sekä kotimaisten että sisämarkkina- ja kolmasmaatuotteiden osalta. Takaisinvedot ovat osoitus sekä viranomaisvalvonnan että yritysten omavalvonnan toimivuudesta ja vastuullisuudesta.