Asiantuntijatarkastetut artikkelit - Original articles and reviews


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  • Koski, P.; Anttila, P.; Kuusela, J. (2016)
    Killing of Gyrodactylus salaris By heat and chemical disinfection
  • Holopainen, R.; Subramaniam, K.; Steckler, N.K.; Claytor, S.C.; Ariel, E.; Waltzek, T.B. (2016)
    Genome Announcements 2016: Vol. 4, No. 6
  • Eriksson-Kallio, A.M.; Viljamaa-Dirks, S.; Vennerström, P.; Kuukka-Anttila, H.; Koski, P.; Holopainen, R.; Gadd, T. (2016)
    DISEASES OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS 2016: Vol. 118, pp. 21 - 30
  • Biström, M.; Moisander-Jylhä, A.; Heinikainen, S.; Pelkola, K.; Raunio-Saarnisto, M. (2016)
    Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2016: Vol. 58, No. 1
  • Nokireki, T.; Nevalainen, M.; Sihvonen, L.; Gadd, T. (2016)
    Background Oral rabies vaccination of wildlife has effectively reduced the incidence of rabies in wildlife and has led to the elimination of rabies in large areas of Europe. The safety of oral rabies vaccines has been assessed in both target (red fox and raccoon dog) and several non-target species. Case presentation Since 2011, the competent authority in Finland has received a few reports of dogs experiencing adverse reactions that have been assumed to be caused by the consumption of baits containing oral rabies vaccine. The dogs usually exhibited gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting, inappetence, constipation or diarrhoea) or behavioral symptoms (restlessness, listlessness and unwillingness to continue hunting). Conclusions Nevertheless, these adverse reactions are transient and non-life threatening. Even though the adverse reactions are unpleasant to individual dogs and their owners, the benefits of oral rabies vaccination clearly outweigh the risks.
  • Oksanen, A.; Siles-Lucas, M.; Karamon, J.; Possenti, A.; Conraths, F.J.; Romig, T.; Wysocki, P.; Mannocci, A.; Mipatrini, D.; La Torre, G.; Boufana, B.; Casulli, A. (2016)
    Background This study aimed to provide a systematic review on the geographical distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis in definitive and intermediate hosts in the European Union (EU) and adjacent countries (AC). The relative importance of the different host species in the life-cycle of this parasite was highlighted and gaps in our knowledge regarding these hosts were identified. Methods Six databases were searched for primary research studies published from 1900 to 2015. From a total of 2,805 identified scientific papers, 244 publications were used for meta-analyses. Results Studies in 21 countries reported the presence of E. multilocularis in red foxes, with the following pooled prevalence (PP): low (≤ 1 %; Denmark, Slovenia and Sweden); medium (> 1 % to < 10 %; Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Romania and the Ukraine); and high (> 10 %; Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Liechtenstein and Switzerland). Studies from Finland, Ireland, the United Kingdom and Norway reported the absence of E. multilocularis in red foxes. However, E. multilocularis was detected in Arctic foxes from the Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard in Norway. Conclusions Raccoon dogs (PP 2.2 %), golden jackals (PP 4.7 %) and wolves (PP 1.4 %) showed a higher E. multilocularis PP than dogs (PP 0.3 %) and cats (PP 0.5 %). High E. multilocularis PP in raccoon dogs and golden jackals correlated with high PP in foxes. For intermediate hosts (IHs), muskrats (PP 4.2 %) and arvicolids (PP 6.0 %) showed similar E. multilocularis PP as sylvatic definitive hosts (DHs), excluding foxes. Nutrias (PP 1.0 %) and murids (PP 1.1 %) could play a role in the life-cycle of E. multilocularis in areas with medium to high PP in red foxes. In areas with low PP in foxes, no other DH was found infected with E. multilocularis. When fox E. multilocularis PP was >3 %, raccoon dogs and golden jackals could play a similar role as foxes. In areas with high E. multilocularis fox PP, the wolf emerged as a potentially important DH. Dogs and cats could be irrelevant in the life-cycle of the parasite in Europe, although dogs could be important for parasite introduction into non-endemic areas. Muskrats and arvicolids are important IHs. Swine, insectivores, murids and nutrias seem to play a minor or no role in the life-cycle of the parasite within the EU and ACs.
  • Taponen, Suvi; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Pohjanvirta, Tarja; Pitkälä, Anna; Pyörälä, Satu (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Background: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most common bovine mastitis causing bacteria in many countries. It is known that resistance for antimicrobials is in general more common in CoNS than in Staphylococcus aureus but little is known about the antimicrobial resistance of specific CoNS species. In this study, 400 CoNS isolates from bovine mastitic milk samples were identified to species level using ribotyping and MALDI-TOF MS, and their antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using a commercially available microdilution system. The results were interpreted according to the epidemiological cut-off values by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing. Results: The most common CoNS species were S. simulans, S. epidermidis, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. Penicillin resistance was the most common type of antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most resistant among the four major species. Almost one-third of our S. epidermidis isolates were resistant to >2 antimicrobials and close to 7 % were multidrug resistant. The majority of S. epidermidis isolates were resistant to benzylpenicillin. On the contrary, only few S. simulans isolates were penicillin-resistant. Phenotypic oxacillin resistance was found in all four main species, and 34 % of the isolates were oxacillin resistant. However, only 21 isolates (5 %) were positive for the mecA gene. Of these, 20 were S. epidermidis and one S. sciuri. mecC positive isolates were not found. Conclusion: Staphylococcus epidermidis differed from the three other major CoNS species as resistance to the tested antimicrobials was common, several isolates were multidrug resistant, and 19 % of the isolates carried the mecA gene encoding methicillin resistance.
  • Holma-Suutari, A.; Ruokojärvi, P.; Komarov, A.A.; Makarov, D.A.; Ovcharenko, V.V.; Panin, A.N.; Kiviranta, H.; Laaksonen, S.; Nieminen, M.; Viluksela, M.; Hallikainen, A. (Springer, 2016)
    Background: The Finnish and Russian animal species (semi-domesticated reindeer, Finnish wild moose, Baltic grey seal and Baltic herring) samples were biomonitored in terrestrial and aquatic environments for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). Results: Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) was clearly the most contaminated species. The mean PBDE concentration in grey seal was 115 ng/g fat, and the highest WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ (toxic equivalent set by WHO) was 327 pg/g fat. In Finnish, reindeer WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ varied from 0.92 pg/g fat in muscle to 90.8 pg/g fat in liver. WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ in moose liver samples was in the range of 0.7–4.26 pg/g fat, and WHO-PCB-TEQ in the range of 0.42–3.34 pg/g fat. Overall moose had clearly lower PCDD/F and DL-PCB concentrations in their liver than reindeer. Conclusions: Terrestrial animals generally had low POP concentrations, but in reindeer liver dioxin levels were quite high. All Finnish and Russian reindeer liver.
  • Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Van Reeth, Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M.; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Østergaard Breum, Solvej; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; ESNIP3 consortium; Brown, Ian H.; Loeffen, Willien (2014)
  • Rintala, Eeva-Maria; Ekholm, Päivi; Koivisto, Pertti; Peltonen, Kimmo; Venäläinen, Eija-Riitta (2014)
  • Revez, Joana; Llarena, Ann-Katrin; Schott, Thomas; Kuusi, Markku; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Kivistö, Rauni; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Rossi, Mirko (2014)
  • Nordgren, Heli; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Sironen, Tarja; Kinnunen, Paula M.; Kivistö, Ilkka; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja; Moisander-Jylhä, Anna-Maria; Korpela, Johanna; Kokkonen, Ulla-Maija; Hetzel, Udo; Sukura, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli (2014)
  • Karkamo, Veera; Kaistinen, Anu; Näreaho, Anu; Dillard, Kati; Vainio-Siukola, Katri; Vidgrén, Gabriele; Tuoresmäki, Niina; Anttila, Marjukka (2014)