Asiantuntijatarkastetut artikkelit - Original articles and reviews


Uusimmat julkaisut

  • Isomursu, M.; Koivusaari, J.; Stjernberg, T.; Venäläinen, E.-R.; Hirvelä-Koski, V. (Springer, 2018)
    The white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) suffered a severe population decline due to environmental pollutants in the Baltic Sea area ca. 50 years ago but has since been recovering. The main threats for the white-tailed eagle in Finland are now often related to human activities. We examined the human impact on the white-tailed eagle by determining mortality factors of 123 carcasses collected during 2000-2014. Routine necropsy with chemical analyses for lead and mercury were done on all carcasses. We found human-related factors accounting for 60% of the causes of death. The most important of these was lead poisoning (31% of all cases) followed by human-related accidents (e.g. electric power lines and traffic) (24%). The temporal and regional patterns of occurrence of lead poisonings suggested spent lead ammunition as the source. Lead shot was found in the gizzards of some lead-poisoned birds. Scavenging behaviour exposes the white-tailed eagle to lead from spent ammunition.
  • Hallanvuo, S.; Herranen, M.; Jaakkonen, A.; Nummela, M.; Ranta, J.; Botteldoorn, N.; De Zutter, L.; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M.; Hertwig, S.; ohannessen, G.S.; Ludewig, M.; Messelhäußer, U.; Sigvart-Mattila, P.; Thisted-Lambertz, S.; Thure, T.; Vatunen, E.; Interlaboratory study group (Elsevier, 2018)
    EN ISO 10273 method for the detection of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in foods was validated in the project Mandate M/381 funded by European Commission. A total of 14 laboratories from five European countries participated in the interlaboratory study (ILS) organized during 2013 and 2014. Before the ILS, the method was revised by an international group of experts and the performance of the revised method was assessed in an ILS study. The results are published as a part of the standard EN ISO 10273 revision. The study included three rounds with different sample types; raw milk, iceberg lettuce and minced meat, inoculated with a low and high level of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains representing major pathogenic bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9. The homogeneity and stability of the samples were verified before dispatching them to the laboratories. The results demonstrated the method sensitivity of 96% in raw milk, 97% in minced meat, and 98% in lettuce at high inoculation level of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. The specificity was 100% in raw milk, 96% in minced meat, and 98% in lettuce. The level of detection, LOD50, varied between study rounds, being 9.4 CFU/25 ml in raw milk, 9.9 CFU/25 g in minced meat and 63 CFU/25 g in lettuce samples. During the study, confirmation by using real-time PCR method ISO/TS 18867 together with pyrazinamidase testing was also validated, as alternative to conventional biochemical confirmation. When comparing different isolation steps used in the revised method during the study rounds, PSB enrichment and plating on CIN after alkaline (KOH) treatment showed the highest sensitivity (52–92%) in raw milk and minced meat samples. In lettuce samples, however, ITC with KOH treatment before plating on CIN showed higher sensitivity (64% at low level; 82% at high level) than plating on CIN from PSB with KOH treatment (44% at low level; 74% at high level). Statistical analysis of different isolation steps supported the use of two enrichment media, PSB and ITC, in the revised method. Recovery of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica on CIN was most efficient after KOH treatment and, based on the analysis, plating on CIN agar without KOH treatment could be left as optional procedure in the method.
  • Dillard, Kati J.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Fischer, Daniel; Tanhuanpää, Kimmo; Lehti, Mari S.; Vainio-Siukola, Katri; Sironen, Anu; Anttila, Marjukka (PlosOne, 2018)
    Ciliopathies presenting as inherited hepatorenal fibrocystic disorders are rare in humans and in dogs. We describe here a novel lethal ciliopathy in Norwich Terrier puppies that was diagnosed at necropsy and characterized as diffuse cystic renal disease and hepatic fibrosis. The histopathological findings were typical for cystic renal dysplasia in which the cysts were located in the straight portion of the proximal tubule, and thin descending and ascending limbs of Henle’s loop. The pedigree of the affected puppies was suggestive of an autosomal recessive inheritance and therefore, whole exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping were used for identification of the causative variant. The analyses revealed a case-specific homozygous splice donor site variant in a cilia related gene, INPP5E: c.1572+5G>A. Association of the variant with the defect was validated in a large cohort of Norwich Terriers with 3 cases and 480 controls, the carrier frequency being 6%. We observed that the identified variant introduces a novel splice site in INPP5E causing a frameshift and formation of a premature stop codon. In conclusion, our results suggest that the INPP5E: c.1572+5G>A variant is causal for the ciliopathy in Norwich Terriers. Therefore, genetic testing can be carried out in the future for the eradication of the disease from the breed.
  • Nokireki, Tiina; Tammiranta, Niina; Kokkonen, Ulla-Maija; Kantala, Tuija; Gadd, Tuija (Wiley, 2018)
    A tentative novel member of the genus Lyssavirus, designated as Kotalahti bat lyssavirus, was detected in a Brandt's bat (Myotis brandtii) in Finland. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the virus differs from other known lyssaviruses, being closely related to Khujand virus, Aravan virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus and European bat lyssavirus 2.
  • Lienemann, Taru; Beyer, Wolfgang; Pelkola, Kirsti; Rossow, Heidi; Rehn, Alexandra; Antwerpen, Markus; Grass, Gregor (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Anthrax, the zoonotic disease caused by the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is nowadays rare in northern parts of Europe including Finland and Scandinavia. Only two minor outbreaks of anthrax in 1988 and in 2004 and one sporadic infection in 2008 have been detected in animals in Finland since the 1970’s. Here, we report on two Finnish B. anthracis strains that were isolated from spleen and liver of a diseased calf related to the outbreak in 1988 (strain HKI4363/88) and from a local scrotum and testicle infection of a bull in 2008 (strain BA2968). These infections occurred in two rural Finnish regions, i.e., Ostrobothnia in western Finland and Päijänne Tavastia in southern Finland, respectively.
  • Tuomola, Juha; Yemshanov, Denys; Huitu, Hanna; Hannunen, Salla (2018)
    Surveying multiple invasive pest species at the same time can help reduce the cost of detecting new pest invasions. In this paper, we describe a new method for mapping the relative likelihood of pest invasion via plant propagation material in a geographic setting. The method simulates the invasion of a range of pest species, including arrival in an uninvaded area, spread, and survival in a novel landscape, using information on the spatial and temporal distribution of the suitable host crop species and tentative knowledge of the spread and survival capacities of the target pests. The methodology is applied to a gridded map in which each map cell represents a site in a landscape. The method uses stochastic simulations to depict plausible realizations of the invasion outcomes and estimate the distribution of pest invasion likelihood for each cell in the area of concern. The method then prioritizes the cells based on the stochastic invasion outcomes using a pairwise stochastic dominance rule and a hypervolume indicator. We demonstrate the approach by assessing the relative likelihood of pest invasion for strawberry production in Finland. Our method helps to differentiate sites in a landscape using both the estimates of pest invasion risk and their uncertainty. It can be applied to prioritize sites for plant health surveys and allocate survey resources among large geographic regions. The approach is generalizable and can be used in situations where knowledge of the harmful pest species is poor or nonexistent.
  • Nokireki, T.; Sironen, T.; Smure, T.; Karkamo, V.; Sihvonen, L.; Gadd, T. (2017)
    European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) was detected in Finland in a Daubenton’s bat (Myotis daubentonii) found in the municipality of Inkoo (60°02′45″N, 024°00′20″E). The bat showed neurological signs and was later found dead. The laboratory analysis revealed the presence of lyssavirus, and the virus was characterized as EBLV-2. This isolation of EBLV-2 was the second time that the virus has been detected in a Daubenton’s bat in Finland. This provides additional proof that EBLV-2 is endemic in the Finnish Daubenton’s bat population.
  • Nokkireki, T.; Jakava-Viljanen, M.; Virtala, A.-M.; Sihvonen, L. (2017)
    Background: Rabies is preventable by pre- and/or post-exposure prophylaxis consisting of series of rabies vaccinations and in some cases the use of immunoglobulins. The success of vaccination can be estimated either by measuring virus neutralising antibodies or by challenge experiment. Vaccines based on rabies virus offer cross-protection against other lyssaviruses closely related to rabies virus. The aim was to assess the success of rabies vaccination measured by the antibody response in dogs (n = 10,071) and cats (n = 722), as well as to investigate the factors influencing the response to vaccination when animals failed to reach a rabies antibody titre of ≥ 0.5 IU/ml. Another aim was to assess the level of protection afforded by a commercial veterinary rabies vaccine against intracerebral challenge in mice with European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) and classical rabies virus (RABV), and to compare this with the protection offered by a vaccine for humans. Results: A significantly higher proportion of dogs (10.7%, 95% confidence interval CI 10.1–11.3) than cats (3.5%; 95% CI 2.3–5.0) had a vaccination antibody titre of < 0.5 IU/ml. In dogs, vaccination with certain vaccines, vaccination over 6 months prior the time of antibody determination and vaccination of dogs with a size of > 60 cm or larger resulted in a higher risk of failing to reach an antibody level of at least 0.5 IU/ml. When challenged with EBLV-2 and RABV, 80 and 100% of mice vaccinated with the veterinary rabies vaccine survived, respectively. When mice were vaccinated with the human rabies vaccine and challenged with EBLV-2, 75–80% survived, depending on the booster. All vaccinated mice developed sufficient to high titres of virus-neutralising antibodies (VNA) against RABV 21–22 days post-vaccination, ranging from 0.5 to 128 IU/ml. However, there was significant difference between antibody titres after vaccinating once in comparison to vaccinating twice (P < 0.05). Conclusions: There was a significant difference between dogs and cats in their ability to reach a post vaccination antibody titre of ≥ 0.5 IU/ml. Mice vaccinated with RABV-based rabies vaccines were partly cross-protected against EBLV-2, but there was no clear correlation between VNA titres and cross-protection against EBLV-2. Measurement of the RABV VNA titre can only be seen as a partial tool to estimate the cross-protection against other lyssaviruses. Booster vaccination is recommended for dogs and cats if exposed to infected bats.
  • Jaakkonen, A.; Salmenlinna, S.; Rimhanen-Finne, R.; Lundström, H.; Heinikainen, S.; Hakkinen, M.; Hallanvuo, S. (2017)
    Shiga toxin-producing, sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157 (SF O157) has emerged as a cause of severe human illness. Despite frequent human findings, its transmission routes and reservoirs remain largely unknown. Foodborne transmission and reservoir in cattle have been suspected, but with limited supporting evidence. This study describes the outbreak of SF O157 that occurred in Finland in 2012. The outbreak originated from a recreational farm selling unpasteurized milk, as revealed by epidemiologic and microbiological investigations, and involved six hospitalized children and two asymptomatic adults with culture-confirmed infection. An identical strain of SF O157 was isolated from patients, cattle and the farm environment, and epidemiologic analysis suggested unpasteurized milk as the vehicle of transmission. This study reports the first milkborne outbreak of SF O157, provides supporting evidence of cattle as a reservoir and highlights the health risks related to the consumption of unpasteurized milk.
  • Kyyrö, J.; Sahlstrom, L.; Lyytikäinen, T. (2017)
    The NORA rapid risk assessment tool was developed for situations where there is a change in the disease status of easily transmissible animal diseases in neighbouring countries or in countries with significant interactions with Finland. The goal was to develop a tool that is quick to use and will provide consistent results to support risk management decisions. The model contains 63 questions that define the potential for entry and exposure by nine different pathways. The magnitude of the consequences is defined by 23 statements. The weight of different pathways is defined according to the properties of the assessed disease. The model was built as an Excel spreadsheet and is intended for use by animal health control administrators. As an outcome, the model gives the possible pathways of disease entry into the country, an overall approximation for the probability of entry and the subsequent exposure, an overall estimate for the consequences and a combined overall risk estimate (probability multiplied by magnitude of consequences). Model validity was assessed by expert panels. Outside Africa, African swine fever is currently established in Russia and Sardinia. In addition, there have been cases in both wild boar and domestic pigs in Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Estonia. Finland has frequent contacts with Russia and Estonia, especially through passengers. The risk of African swine fever (ASF) introduction into Finland was tested with NORA for the situation in December 2015, when ASF was endemic in many parts of Russia, Africa and Sardinia and was present in Baltic countries and in Poland. African swine fever was assessed to have a high probability of entry into Finland, with high consequences and therefore a high overall risk.
  • Holopainen, R.; Eriksson-Kallio, A.M.; Gadd, T. (2017)
    Archives of Virology 2017: Vol. 162, No. 11, pp. 3459 - 3471
    Abstract Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) has been isolated annually since 1987 from salmonids without clinical signs at coastal fish farms in Finland. In the inland area, viral isolations were rare until 2012, when IPNV was detected at several freshwater fish farms. Between 2013 and 2015, the infection spread and IPNV was continuously isolated from several farms, both inland and on the coast. The aim of this study was to genetically characterise the IPNV isolates collected from Finnish coastal and inland fish farms over the last 15 years, and to detect genetic changes that may have occurred in the virus populations during the study period. The partial VP2 gene sequence from 88 isolates was analysed. In addition, a complete genomic coding sequence was obtained from 11 isolates. Based on the genetic analyses, Finnish IPNV isolates belong to three genogroups: 2, 5 and 6. The genetic properties of the isolates appear to vary between inland farms producing juveniles and food fish farms in the coastal region: the inland farms harboured genogroup 2 isolates, whereas at coastal farms, all three genogroups were detected. Little genetic variation was observed within the Finnish genogroup 2 and 5 isolates, whereas among the genogroup 6 isolates, two subgroups were detected. All isolates studied demonstrated amino acid patterns in the viral VP2 gene previously associated with avirulence. However, increased mortality was detected at some of the farms, indicating that more research is needed to clarify the relationship between the pathogenicity and genetic properties of IPNV isolates from different genogroups.
  • Vennerström, P.; Välimäki, E.; Lyytikäinen, T.; Hautaniemi, M.; Vidgren, G.; Koski, P. (2017)
    The eradication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV Id) from Finnish brackish-water rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss farms located in the restriction zone in the Province of Åland, Baltic Sea, failed several times in the 2000s. The official surveillance programme was often unable to find VHSV-positive populations, leading to the misbelief in the fish farming industry that virus eradication could be achieved. The ability of 3 other surveillance programmes to detect infected fish populations was compared with the official programme. One programme involved syndromic surveillance based on the observation of clinical disease signs by fish farmers, while 2 programmes comprised active surveillance similar to the official programme, but included increased sampling frequencies and 2 additional tests. The syndromic surveillance concentrated on sending in samples for analysis when any sign of a possible infectious disease at water temperatures below 15°C was noticed. This programme clearly outperformed active surveillance. A realtime reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction method proved to be at least as sensitive as virus isolation in cell culture in detecting acute VHSV infections. An ELISA method was used to test fish serum for antibodies against VHSV. The ELISA method may be a useful tool in VHSV eradication for screening populations during the follow-up period, before declaring an area free of infection.
  • Koski, P.; Anttila, P.; Kuusela, J. (2016)
    Killing of Gyrodactylus salaris By heat and chemical disinfection
  • Holopainen, R.; Subramaniam, K.; Steckler, N.K.; Claytor, S.C.; Ariel, E.; Waltzek, T.B. (2016)
    Genome Announcements 2016: Vol. 4, No. 6
  • Eriksson-Kallio, A.M.; Viljamaa-Dirks, S.; Vennerström, P.; Kuukka-Anttila, H.; Koski, P.; Holopainen, R.; Gadd, T. (2016)
    DISEASES OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS 2016: Vol. 118, pp. 21 - 30
  • Biström, M.; Moisander-Jylhä, A.; Heinikainen, S.; Pelkola, K.; Raunio-Saarnisto, M. (2016)
    Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2016: Vol. 58, No. 1
  • Nokireki, T.; Nevalainen, M.; Sihvonen, L.; Gadd, T. (2016)
    Background Oral rabies vaccination of wildlife has effectively reduced the incidence of rabies in wildlife and has led to the elimination of rabies in large areas of Europe. The safety of oral rabies vaccines has been assessed in both target (red fox and raccoon dog) and several non-target species. Case presentation Since 2011, the competent authority in Finland has received a few reports of dogs experiencing adverse reactions that have been assumed to be caused by the consumption of baits containing oral rabies vaccine. The dogs usually exhibited gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting, inappetence, constipation or diarrhoea) or behavioral symptoms (restlessness, listlessness and unwillingness to continue hunting). Conclusions Nevertheless, these adverse reactions are transient and non-life threatening. Even though the adverse reactions are unpleasant to individual dogs and their owners, the benefits of oral rabies vaccination clearly outweigh the risks.
  • Oksanen, A.; Siles-Lucas, M.; Karamon, J.; Possenti, A.; Conraths, F.J.; Romig, T.; Wysocki, P.; Mannocci, A.; Mipatrini, D.; La Torre, G.; Boufana, B.; Casulli, A. (2016)
    Background This study aimed to provide a systematic review on the geographical distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis in definitive and intermediate hosts in the European Union (EU) and adjacent countries (AC). The relative importance of the different host species in the life-cycle of this parasite was highlighted and gaps in our knowledge regarding these hosts were identified. Methods Six databases were searched for primary research studies published from 1900 to 2015. From a total of 2,805 identified scientific papers, 244 publications were used for meta-analyses. Results Studies in 21 countries reported the presence of E. multilocularis in red foxes, with the following pooled prevalence (PP): low (≤ 1 %; Denmark, Slovenia and Sweden); medium (> 1 % to < 10 %; Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Romania and the Ukraine); and high (> 10 %; Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Liechtenstein and Switzerland). Studies from Finland, Ireland, the United Kingdom and Norway reported the absence of E. multilocularis in red foxes. However, E. multilocularis was detected in Arctic foxes from the Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard in Norway. Conclusions Raccoon dogs (PP 2.2 %), golden jackals (PP 4.7 %) and wolves (PP 1.4 %) showed a higher E. multilocularis PP than dogs (PP 0.3 %) and cats (PP 0.5 %). High E. multilocularis PP in raccoon dogs and golden jackals correlated with high PP in foxes. For intermediate hosts (IHs), muskrats (PP 4.2 %) and arvicolids (PP 6.0 %) showed similar E. multilocularis PP as sylvatic definitive hosts (DHs), excluding foxes. Nutrias (PP 1.0 %) and murids (PP 1.1 %) could play a role in the life-cycle of E. multilocularis in areas with medium to high PP in red foxes. In areas with low PP in foxes, no other DH was found infected with E. multilocularis. When fox E. multilocularis PP was >3 %, raccoon dogs and golden jackals could play a similar role as foxes. In areas with high E. multilocularis fox PP, the wolf emerged as a potentially important DH. Dogs and cats could be irrelevant in the life-cycle of the parasite in Europe, although dogs could be important for parasite introduction into non-endemic areas. Muskrats and arvicolids are important IHs. Swine, insectivores, murids and nutrias seem to play a minor or no role in the life-cycle of the parasite within the EU and ACs.
  • Taponen, Suvi; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Pohjanvirta, Tarja; Pitkälä, Anna; Pyörälä, Satu (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Background: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most common bovine mastitis causing bacteria in many countries. It is known that resistance for antimicrobials is in general more common in CoNS than in Staphylococcus aureus but little is known about the antimicrobial resistance of specific CoNS species. In this study, 400 CoNS isolates from bovine mastitic milk samples were identified to species level using ribotyping and MALDI-TOF MS, and their antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using a commercially available microdilution system. The results were interpreted according to the epidemiological cut-off values by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing. Results: The most common CoNS species were S. simulans, S. epidermidis, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. Penicillin resistance was the most common type of antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most resistant among the four major species. Almost one-third of our S. epidermidis isolates were resistant to >2 antimicrobials and close to 7 % were multidrug resistant. The majority of S. epidermidis isolates were resistant to benzylpenicillin. On the contrary, only few S. simulans isolates were penicillin-resistant. Phenotypic oxacillin resistance was found in all four main species, and 34 % of the isolates were oxacillin resistant. However, only 21 isolates (5 %) were positive for the mecA gene. Of these, 20 were S. epidermidis and one S. sciuri. mecC positive isolates were not found. Conclusion: Staphylococcus epidermidis differed from the three other major CoNS species as resistance to the tested antimicrobials was common, several isolates were multidrug resistant, and 19 % of the isolates carried the mecA gene encoding methicillin resistance.
  • Holma-Suutari, A.; Ruokojärvi, P.; Komarov, A.A.; Makarov, D.A.; Ovcharenko, V.V.; Panin, A.N.; Kiviranta, H.; Laaksonen, S.; Nieminen, M.; Viluksela, M.; Hallikainen, A. (Springer, 2016)
    Background: The Finnish and Russian animal species (semi-domesticated reindeer, Finnish wild moose, Baltic grey seal and Baltic herring) samples were biomonitored in terrestrial and aquatic environments for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). Results: Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) was clearly the most contaminated species. The mean PBDE concentration in grey seal was 115 ng/g fat, and the highest WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ (toxic equivalent set by WHO) was 327 pg/g fat. In Finnish, reindeer WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ varied from 0.92 pg/g fat in muscle to 90.8 pg/g fat in liver. WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ in moose liver samples was in the range of 0.7–4.26 pg/g fat, and WHO-PCB-TEQ in the range of 0.42–3.34 pg/g fat. Overall moose had clearly lower PCDD/F and DL-PCB concentrations in their liver than reindeer. Conclusions: Terrestrial animals generally had low POP concentrations, but in reindeer liver dioxin levels were quite high. All Finnish and Russian reindeer liver.

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