Management and Organisation

 

Recent Submissions

  • Kunwar, Jagat Bahadur (Hanken School of Economics, 2021-10-18)
    Some individuals face social discrimination due to their sexual orientation and/or gender identity. Despite legal successes, social inequalities for sexual and gender minorities (SGM) persists. The aim of the study was to understand: (1) Which social inequalities do SGM face and how are these inequalities reproduced? and (2) How, and to what effect, has collective action subverted these individuals’ experience of oppression? The ongoing SGM movement in Nepal, which started around the year 2001, is used as a case study. The study empirically adopts a multi-level field analysis. Correspondence analysis performed on an existing census of SGM population in Nepal revealed various SGM clusters with their corresponding sociodemographic characteristics and social discrimination experienced. Narratives of SGM revealed how they construct their own identities and interpret the social inequalities faced. In-depth interviews with influential actors explained how gender taxonomies are established and contested in various social fields. Text-mining operations on a media corpus revealed significant ‘discourse clusters’ and helped to understand discursive evolution of the SGM movement in Nepal. A systematic bibliometric survey of sexuality and gender studies helped to contextualize some unique SGM issues in the ‘Global South’. Social construction, self-construction, embodiment, and intersectionality of social categories are important to understand sexuality and gender. Narratives of the lived experiences produce a coherent sense of gender identity. Sexuality and gender can additionally be understood as ‘habitus’/dispositions–inculcated through socialization–and transformed through everyday practices. The bases of social inequalities faced by SGM are social stigma, ‘identity ambiguities’, and an ‘internalized’ form of oppression. Intersecting social identities can further lead to a unique experience of oppression. This study identifies discriminatory gender taxonomies as the root cause producing and perpetuating social inequalities. However, inequalities faced by SGM are not uniform but hierarchical and nested. The severity of the heteronormative domination is mediated by the masculine domination already existing in a society. SGM activism can be viewed as delegitimizing the discriminatory gender taxonomies across various social fields. ‘Gender reflexivity’ arising due to the dialectic of subjective identification towards socially constructed categories is the main force for social activism. Gender reflexivity articulated as personally empowering narratives– when combined with commensurable experiences of oppression faced by various intersectional categories–can develop a collective identity which can be further mobilized through collective organization and symbolic representation. Effective leadership focused on building a common agenda and group consciousness can leverage individual reflexivity into collective action for social justice.
  • Storbacka, Lauri (Hanken School of Economics, 2021-06-04)
    Continuous change and uncertainty is the new normal. In organizational life, contradictions and tensions are ubiquitous, driven in part by the often self-interested interplay between different knowledge traditions. Today’s professionals are being challenged as never before to broaden their competence and collaborate across traditional boundaries. We need a fresh approach to capitalize the value of knowledge as the firm’s most strategically significant resource, and this study picks out the artistic nature of knowing and its inherent relationship with power. The Art of Knowing develops the ability to reflect and think paradoxically in the face of uncertainty, ambiguity and contradiction, by extending ourselves into the subsidiary awareness of particulars that compose a whole. I want to inspire practitioners to accept and engage in reflective practice, reinforcing paradoxical thinking into complex situations. To deliver leading, sustainable performance. Our true power to deal with the conflicts and contradictions of different knowledge traditions comes from the ability to distinguish between practical and discursive consciousness, while recognizing the subsidiary-focal integrative structure. This ethnographic longitudinal study inside a financial services organization examines professional practice and the dynamics of operating across different business segments. Working in and researching the target organization gave me unique access to people and processes to gather empirical material in 2013-2019.
  • Kaarlela, Mirja (Hanken School of Economics, 2021-04-26)
    The curtains to the boardroom are opening, and the walls of its so-called black box are slowly becoming more transparent. Recent research is revealing how human behaviors and dynamics affect board work, and the micro-level perspectives are demanding more of our attention. Contributing to that expanding body of research, this dissertation generates insights on how board members bring their individual and personal approaches, frames of reference and worldview to any board situation. Exploring and voicing various perceptions contributes to further understanding what board members do, think they are expected to do, and how they think, feel and act. An explorative approach between the scientific knowledge and practitioner perceptions brings out the profound and ongoing transformations in ways of doing business. This creates a need to broaden our views of value and value creation, both in research and practice. Particularly, board members of the more entrepreneurial companies reveal diverse and ample ways to conceptualize and act on value and value creation. The data illustrate, for example, that while one person immerses themselves in a company’s dream, and questions conformity as a driver for new value creation, another bases their value creation on purpose-driven and conscious behavioral choices. Collaborative connections signify empowerment and value creation for one. Yet another relies on conventional practices and carefully sustained boundaries as the glue to facilitate new value creation. The four vignettes presented in this research speak to a continuous need to re-focus, re-think and re-evaluate value and value creation. I conducted this research at the intersection of academia and practice, perspectives that both question and complement each other. One aim is to demonstrate the importance and benefits of reflective interaction. Of equal significance, I argue for the benefits of building a bridge between the existing research and encounters and experiences from the practitioner world. I invite the reader to reflect on the puzzle of the human side of the board of directors and value creation, how we can create more value by accepting and better understanding each other’s views and underlying concepts of value and value creation. This will allow more diversified notions of value creation to surface.
  • Krohn, Mikaela (Hanken School of Economics, 2020-09-14)
    Online videos are a form of dynamic visual communication that embrace the amateurish and informal communication style that is typical of videos in social media. In organizations’ strategic communication these types of videos are used for disseminating management message about strategy, strategic issues and news, as well as, for culture building in strategic change. This thesis explores the use of online videos as visual strategic organizational communication, focusing particularly on what online videos are, how they influence strategizing, and what are the underlying mechanism that condition strategizing with online videos. Building on the strategy as practice and sociomateriality perspectives, this thesis connects the openness paradigm and the technological and cultural developments of our time with how people do strategy in current day organizations. This thesis comprises of three studies. Paper 1 outlines a definition of the phenomenon and discusses potential theoretical implications of the use of visual social media type of communication for strategizing. Paper 2 provides an internal open strategizing perspective on the phenomenon of online videos, with an in-depth ethnographic study of a large retail organization. Paper 3 studies an internal strategy workshop video that accidentally leaked outside the company and follows the external audiences´ gamified interaction with this video on public social media. This thesis contributes to strategy as practice literature in three ways. First, it defines the phenomenon of online videos as visual strategic organizational communication. Second, it demonstrates that the use of online videos influences strategizing with their affordances, supports open strategizing, and may over time enable a dynamic of intimacy to emerge. Third, it discusses why the underlying media infrastructure conditions strategizing in a specific way. Further, this thesis contributes to visual management studies by illuminating a type of visual communication practice and theorizing on how the affordances of visibility and visuality interplay with strategizing. Visibility is highly related to transparency and the demand and desire for openness in contemporary organization, whereas visuality enables us to create an emotional or sensory imprint of the message necessary for strategic buy-in and commitment. Together both of these build transparency, inclusivity, and intimacy for more open paradigm management and strategizing. For future research, this study lays the ground to further explore the visualization of organizations as ways to execute the ideal of openness, authenticity, and non-hierarchy in organizations.
  • Pokidko, Daniil (Hanken School of Economics, 2020-05-06)
    “Collateral learning in the way of formation of enduring attitudes, of likes and dislikes, may be and often is much more important than the spelling lesson or lesson in geography or history that is learned.” John Dewey (1938/1997, p. 48) Understanding (or misunderstanding) one’s own likes and dislikes and their origins plays a powerful role within human life. The power of likes and dislikes pushes a person toward or against something. This power makes a person pursue some issues while abandoning the others. It is the same power that makes people persist in something despite the challenges and limitations they encounter, or on the contrary, avoid doing something despite obvious benefits. I dare to suggest that in the context of the entrepreneurship experience, the power of likes and dislikes may determine the effort invested in pursuing perceived opportunities and the dedication to this pursuit, regardless of the scarcity of resources. I believe that the attempt to understand the hidden reasons behind these feelings may play a decisive role in experiencing the pursuit, and this needs to be emphasized within entrepreneurship research and education. I try to validate this statement through my personal example of experiencing entrepreneurship, and learning about it in the summary part of this PhD thesis. The four papers that constitute the core of this thesis provide the reader with a deeper insight into this issue from educational, methodological and theoretical points of view.
  • Ahlvik, Catarina (Hanken School of Economics, 2019-08-12)
    Today, the word mindfulness is so widely used that the profundity of this practice is sometimes overlooked. Furthermore, some articles, mostly in practitioner-oriented journals, have raised the concern of mindfulness practice having a pacifying effect on employees. This concern often stems from the notion of mindfulness having a non-judgmental component and the fear that this component may create complacency in the workplace. This is, however, a misreading of the practice, as non-judgement in this context refers to how to skillfully relate to one’s own experience. A non-judgmental attitude or attitudes such as acceptance and self-compassion are qualities that can facilitate contact with uncomfortable experiences and may thus diminish impulsive or defensive reactions. Thus, a non-judgmental attitude does not refer to complying with potentially disharmonious external conditions; rather, it enables turning towards and experiencing the present circumstances exactly as they are. In this thesis, I tackle this question in detail both theoretically and empirically, and show that mindfulness develops personal resources and may indeed be a powerful trigger for agency. Agency here refers to purposeful engagement with the social context, aiming to alter or maintain that context. Specifically, I argue that mindfulness may trigger what I refer to as institutional awareness, that is the ability to be aware of the emotional and cognitive impact of the institution in which you are embedded. Furthermore, I empirically show that mindfulness supports change-oriented behavior in organizations and that it does so through facilitating autonomous choice. Choices and actions are seen as autonomous when they are congruent with a person’s authentic interests and values. In line with previous research in clinical settings, I also show that mindfulness reduces, stress, burnout and increases the ability to detach from work after working hours. These findings are the result of a large-scale randomized field intervention, where 130 managers from four organizations in Finland participated in an 8-week Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) course.
  • Ritvanen, Hannu (Hanken School of Economics, 2019-08-07)
    This thesis has two aims: firstly to discuss and answer what are Intellectual Capital (IC)-related risks, and secondly to develop a framework for decision-makers for managing IC-related risks in an organisational context and practice. The main discipline and contributions of the thesis are in IC theory. Risk theory forms an important element to the contribution. The presumption is that risks occur in relationships, while results are shown in entities or in new tensions in relationships. Knowledge is seen as relational, between subject and object, between knower and known (or not known). The dominant classification, the ‘IC-Triad’ (human, structural and relational capitals), is an artefact from the time when IC was understood from an accounting perspective with financial and intangible assets. In this thesis an alternative is proposed. If classification is understood as a means to make sense of the complex world for managerial purpose, it is better to interpret the managerial task with concepts as close to the managerial reality as possible. I suggest re-conceptualising the original ‘IC-Triad’ to address arguably one of the most difficult, yet most common, managerial tasks: how to manage risk. Practitioners must in temporal flow of events ‘make do, with what is available’; I see them as ‘bricoleurs’. The ultimate aim of this thesis is to give decision-makers, through a practical framework for managing risk, more than they currently have available. Related IC and Intellectual Capital Management (ICM) discourses and the Risk Management (RM) literature have been reviewed. The conclusion from the IC literature review is that the dominant ‘IC-Triad’ needs to be re-conceptualised, including relationships, by developing a full ‘relational approach’ to Intellectual Capital Risk Management. This means that knowledge and knowing are understood as ‘existing’ in relationships between the subject (knower) and object (known). The object of enquiry can be entities or potential relationships between objects. The conclusion from literature review is that the conceptualisations underlying ISO 31000 are appropriate to the purpose of managing risks, risk defined as: the ‘effect of uncertainty on objectives’. The ICRM Framework is the main contribution to the IC, ICM and IC risk literatures by defining IC-related risks, identifying (with an emphasis on finding) IC-related risks in the practical organisational context and bridging the gap between management and operations by identifying the essential uncertainties in the organisational domain operationalised as epistemic holes in three temporal dimensions: ex-ante, present, and ex-post. The key is to avoid the ‘optimistic agenda’ by taking all essential uncertainties into account for decision-making and sharing the objectives of the organisation to all decision-makers. The risk identification process further ensures that the objectives are commonly known and that all events, whether positive or negative at the time of assessment, are also shared.
  • John, Sofia (Hanken School of Economics, 2017-11-21)
    People are generally considered to be an organization’s most valuable asset, and therefore how organizations influence and manage them is an important issue. Nevertheless, influencing and managing people is not a straightforward matter, not least because individuals respond differently to the same stimulus. Yet the issue of idiosyncrasy in individual’s responses to the organization is often ignored. In order to develop our understanding of why employees respond differently, this thesis takes the employee perspective and delves into two kinds of employees’ cognitive responses to the organization, namely, their perceptions and identification. The thesis builds on the microfoundations literature, which makes explicit that organizational research typically involves multiple levels of analysis. The microfoundations model illustrates that the measures organizations take to enhance performance only do so through the micro level elements (the people) that comprise the macro level phenomenon (the organization). Using multilevel data collected in Nordic multinational corporations, this study analyzes what organizational and individual level factors influence employees’ perceptions and identification. The findings indicate that employees’ perceptions and identification are driven by a complex interplay of factors between different levels of analysis. The primary drivers are the signals employees pick up and their social interaction with other members of the organization. However, these must be considered in the light of the multiple contexts in which the individual is embedded. The individual’s position and responsibilities, as well as the way work is structured and enacted, have important consequences for the individual’s patterns of social interaction and the signals he or she is exposed to. The main contribution of this study is the extension of previous conceptualizations of the microfoundations model. Whilst organizations attempt to influence employees through various means, such as high-commitment HRM practices, the impact these have on employees depends on the context in which this all takes place. Where the individual is positioned within the organization, along with the people he or she interacts with, determine how the individual perceives and relates to the organization.
  • Jalonen, Kari (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2017-10-25)
    The concept ‘strategy’ has become a ubiquitous part of the Western worldview; it has taken over spheres of life far from its original homes in war and business, and is used to manage a variety of collectives, including churches, the Red Cross, and the Boy Scouts. The rational and apparently simple language of strategic plans as a ‘common direction’ or a ‘shared understanding’ seeks to cut through the complexity of organizational life and the different, often competing perspectives people take as they go about their business. However, such sharedness remains elusive: many or most organizations operate in environments defined by multiple objectives and diffuse power, and the formulations of the management are reinterpreted, challenged and appropriated by a polyphony of other voices. Even in such environments where the maintenance of a shared understanding of goals and direction appears impossible, people find ways of acting as if they were in agreement; they manage to coordinate their actions and understanding of strategic priorities. Building on a strategy-as-practice approach, this study investigates how people achieve such coordination despite unavoidable differences in views and ambiguity of meaning. I draw on a 19-year study of strategy work in a Finnish city organization to study how participants introduced broader institutional perspectives to the strategy work as related but different perspectives on the city and its future and used them as institutional voices in dialogue. This study focuses on the ways in which these institutional voices were used in tandem to craft a collective strategy and how this resultant strategy was interpreted and reinterpreted according to situational needs. My findings describe how participants in the strategy work in Bay City related the pluralist institutions with each other and used them in context, and how participants weaved these institutions into partially shared, flexible practices and meanings, ultimately creating a strategy text which was used to coordinate organizational action in a variety of ways, without complete agreement of its meanings. I describe this meeting of perspectives as an ideational dialogue between locally relevant institutional voices, which enabled the creation of a collective strategy. This account makes three contributions to our understanding of the practice of strategy. First, it elucidates the institutional nature of strategy work by describing the role of local enactments of societal and field-level institutions in strategy work. Second, it introduces the notion of institutional dialogue and institutional voices to advance the conversation on institutional complexity, demonstrating the constructive aspects of institutional complexity for strategy work. Third, it provides a polyphonic account of how a collective strategy is formulated in an ongoing process balancing diverging interests.
  • Gylfe, Philip (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2017-09-08)
    Orchestra conductors are concerned with the collective emotions of their organization. Conductors influence emotions in a visual, embodied and open way in order to create a common understanding of goals. Zooming out to other organizations we face the question: are there specific techniques through which organizational members, like conductors, manage emotions? More specifically, what is the role of the human body in the emotions experienced during strategy work? If organizational strategies are embodied in managers who have risen to the top while pursuing a particular set of strategic initiatives, then in what way are strategies embodied in these managers? The strategy work of middle managers forms the core empirical context of this thesis. I engaged in intense video shadowing of middle managers at a national public service broadcasting organization. The middle managers faced the challenging situation of acting as ‘linking pins’ between the organizations strategy and the day-to-day workings of the creative media professionals. Through video analysis I study the multimodal (verbal and embodied) practices through which middle managers channel the top-down and bottom-up flows in the strategy process. The findings of this thesis are threefold. First, I highlight that we need to pay increased attention to the affective reactions occurring during strategy work. Second, I argue for an embodied perspective on the creative idea generation process, and propose that we need a multimodal lens to appreciate how groups are energized into committing to novel strategic ideas. Finally, I suggest a methodological tool-kit for analyzing video data and extracting theoretically meaningful patterns.
  • Lundgren-Henriksson, Eva-Lena (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2017-05-26)
    Organizations frequently partner with actors in their environment in order to increase competitive advantage, at times, even with competitors. During recent decades, researchers have therefore become interested in simultaneous cooperation and competition between organizations, which they refer to as coopetition. Despite the increasing trend of treating strategy as activities performed by individuals, there is limited knowledge concerning how coopetition emerges and becomes shaped by individuals. The articles in this thesis address coopetition from a strategy-as-practice point of view, particularly taking an interest in how actors at different organizational levels make and give sense of emerging coopetition, i.e. coopetition agency creation. A longitudinal case study follows a strategic change process of implementing ongoing cooperation against a background of competition, from formulation to implementation. The case study findings show that coopetition requires modification in established cognitive frames, and that coopetition strategizing becomes complex stemming from the pluralism of views and attitudes across and within actor levels. The findings not only extend the notion of influential strategic actors external and internal to the organization engaged in coopetition, but also problematize the coopetition strategists. It is suggested in the thesis that it is pivotal to understand what enables and hinders individuals’ participation in realizing coopetition strategies, before strategy development and outcomes can fully be understood. Moreover, rather than treating coopetition as a deliberate strategy resulting from pure intentional and rational processes, the findings prove that unintentional influences from multiple levels must also be taken into account. Individual level differences in modifying past practice patterns to fit emerging coopetition are argued to be grounded in who strategists really are; in their backgrounds, histories, and motivations. Looking into the past is vital as the findings show; coopetition strategists across organizational levels hold multiple social identities that influence how sense of the present and future is made and given, and how different action patterns emerge, explaining why certain strategy outcomes are produced. The findings from the articles together emphasize how crucial talk and social interaction in different forms are to how far coopetition is accepted or resisted in organizations. However, different sensemaking patterns and different degrees of modifications in sustained structures and practices tell that accomplishing shared views on coopetition across inter- and intra-organizational levels becomes a challenge, and open future research paths to explore how coopetition frames are enacted over time.
  • Stroe, Ioana Silvia (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2017-05-26)
    This work is motivated by the desire to gain a deep understanding of affective experiences of entrepreneurs and their outcomes, in theory and practice. Specifically, the aim of this dissertation is to reframe the conceptualization of passion in entrepreneurship. It does so by uncovering the functioning mechanism through which passion exerts its influence in entrepreneurship as well as by considering the dualistic nature of the passion experience in entrepreneurship. As a whole, this work is guided by a general research question: does passion play a role in the new venture emergence process and if so, how does passion influence the new venture emergence process? The thesis addresses this question through a systematic literature review and three empirical studies. The systematic literature review (Paper I) updates the current state of passion research in entrepreneurship, uncovering thereby yet unanswered questions and research gaps, and thereby informing the following papers of this dissertation. The following three papers look at determinants that influence passion (Paper II) and at passion’s cognitive and motivational outcomes (Paper III and Paper IV). Methodologically, this work combines quantitative research (a longitudinal study and a quasi-experimental cross-sectional study) with mixed methods research designs such as qualitative comparative analysis (based on a cross-sectional study). As a whole, the four papers offer a better understanding of passion in nascent entrepreneurship. First, this dissertation demonstrates that passion can influence, but also be influenced by cognition, and clarifies the important two-way interactions between passion and cognition. Moreover, it furthers our understanding of the dynamic relations between affective and cognitive processes involved in new venture emergence. Second, in theoretically and empirically examining two new functions that passion fulfills in the entrepreneurial process—the emotion regulatory function and the decision-making logic coordination function—this dissertation offers additional and complementary explanations for the importance of passion for entrepreneurship. The current work goes over and above previous studies that looked at passion’s outcomes only considering its valence and offers more fine-grained explanations of the mechanisms through which passion exerts its influence on various critical entrepreneurial outcomes. Third, this dissertation extends the scholarly focus from only harmonious passion to both harmonious and obsessive passion, distinguishes the characteristics of these two forms of passion in entrepreneurship, investigates their development and demonstrates that they can have very different effects on the entrepreneurs’ affective, cognitive and motivational functioning. Therefore, it proves that considering passion in only one of its qualities will lead to an incomplete understanding of passion and its outcomes.
  • Dahl, Johanna (Hanken School of Economics, 2017-04-07)
    This thesis focuses on the simultaneous existence of cooperation and competition between firms, and falls under the research area of coopetition. In recent years, coopetition, inherently complex and paradoxical in nature, has attracted increasing attention in both business practice and research. As a result, coopetition is confirmed as a phenomenon of contemporary importance to companies varying in size and industry. Moreover, from a research standpoint, coopetition has been established as a distinct theoretical approach to explain inter-firm relationships and, in particular, cooperation between directly competing firms. Yet, to advance extant knowledge on coopetition, calls have been made for research scrutinizing the interaction process and focusing on the handling of simultaneous cooperation and competition, at multiple levels of analysis starting from the individual. To this end, the overall aim of this article-based thesis is to develop a theoretical understanding of how coopetition is maintained as a process and as a strategy, alongside an empirical understanding of the interplay between cooperation and competition. The thesis answers three interrelated research questions, addressing the dynamics of coopetitive interaction, the deliberate and emergent features of coopetition, and the balancing of cooperation and competition. Article 1 contributes by conceptualizing change in coopetitive interactions through three mechanisms. The outlined mechanisms are inter-organizational learning manifested in cooperation between competitors, intra-organizational learning based on exchanges of contrasting experiences between individuals within the organization, and the development of the external business environment. The article further contributes by developing the notion that the nature of the change process underlying coopetition, in terms of the generative change mechanism and predefined or discontinuous character, depends on the balance and strength of the cooperative and competitive interactions. In Article 2, the theoretical contribution comprises a framework explaining coopetition as a deliberate and/or emergent strategy. By integrating research on strategy-as- practice and, thus, focusing on the social nature of coopetition, the framework delivers four scenarios on how coopetition strategy manifests in an organization. The framework implies that coopetition strategy ought to be explained as an activity occurring across multiple levels in an organization, and at an institutional and inter-organizational level. Furthermore, the framework broadens extant views on individuals who influence strategy and activities that may be consequential for the strategy. Article 3 contributes to discussions on the influence of different levels of strength of the cooperative and competitive interactions on relational outcomes. The contextual contribution lies in the study’s examination of coopetition in relation to the internationalization process and among a group of SMEs operating in a traditional manufacturing industry. Empirical results imply that the continuity, scope, and strategic impact of opportunities gained through coopetition vary with the balance and strength of the cooperative and competitive interactions.
  • Cleland Silva, Tricia (Hanken School of Economics, 2016-11-14)
    This monograph is a study on how, from 2007 to 2010, five groups of nurses from the Philippines were recruited and transnationally managed and organised to live and work in Finland for both private elderly care facilities and surgical wards in Finnish municipal hospitals. The thesis is critical of international human resource management (IHRM) as a discipline and practice, and discursively analyses structural and societal issues of control and compliance of the historically gendered and racialised occupation of nursing. Furthermore, the transnational processes and movement of human capital from the Philippines to Finland is discussed in terms of (re)producing managerial practices of nurse work which create barriers to equality in the workplace. The study identifies and maps the interaction of various private and public representatives through the transnational practices of recruitment and placement of Filipino nurses into Finnish nursing institutions. Through the identification of the Finnish representatives and the subsequent construction of their associated social worlds based on work practices and commitments, the maps illustrate the organising of human resources transnationally. Subsequently, structural mechanisms, particularly in terms of institutional, national, and international policy and law regulations, are addressed by highlighting transnational human resource management (THRM) practices and discursive positions dominated by public and private representatives in the packaging of the nurses. As a whole, the study strives to broaden the theoretical and empirical examination of migrating nurses to encompass the transnational management of private and public representatives involved in the recruitment and placement practices at institutionalised, meso-levels of organising.
  • Koskinen Sandberg, Paula (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2016-09-27)
    The gender pay gap is a persistent challenge across different national contexts. Within these contexts, however, the underlying mechanisms that have resulted in the gender pay gap can take different shape. In Finland, the gender pay gap has been resistant to policy measures implemented in order to reduce it. This thesis aims to shed light on some of the central features of Finnish society, its institutional context, central actors, and stakeholders, and how these are linked to the apparent failures of Finnish equal pay policy. This study offers a broad-ranging sociological understanding of Finnish society, its historical development, and the kind of citizenship it has offered to its female citizens. The thesis also discusses the role of central labour market organisations in institutionalising wage relativities between the different industries in the Finnish labour market and protecting their vested interests in policy-making. The empirical part of the thesis consists of three articles, each of which addresses an issue that is critical to Finnish and international equal pay policy: the role of collective agreements in institutionalising gendered valuations in wage setting in the Finnish local government sector, evaluation-based pay systems and the assumption that they inherently promote gender pay equity, and non-decision making in tripartite policy process and the way it affected the drafting of the new Finnish gender equality legislation. The first data set was gathered in a participatory action research project in which 18 Finnish organisations took part. The aim of the project was to promote equal pay through developing pay systems The second data set consists of the official minutes of the meetings of the tripartite working group that drafted the law about equal pay comparisons that are mandatory for organisations to conduct. The thesis mainly uses qualitative research methods, along with quantitative and documentary analysis. Based on the research findings, the following arguments are made. The Finnish welfare state has played an active role in creating a secondary labour market for Finnish women in the reproductive work of the public sector. The central labour market organisations have further strengthened the gendered division of labour and hierarchy between male-dominated and female-dominated sectors and industries by institutionalising the wage relativities between these industries in collective agreements. As central actors and powerful players in Finnish policy-making, the central labour market organisations protect their vested interests and resist changes to equal pay policy and legislation. Instead of directly addressing the most important structural and institutional features of the Finnish labour market, current Finnish equal pay policy focuses on less controversial issues, such as organisational practices. Failure to address the most relevant issues on gender pay equity results in modest advances in policy outcomes.
  • Roos, Annikki (Hanken School of Economics, 2016-05-10)
    Information practices are human activities that are related to seeking, managing, giving, using, and producing information in context. This thesis concentrates on the information practices of the researchers in the scientific domain of biomedicine. The object of this study has been to understand the special nature of the information related work and practices as a part of the biomedical research work. It is argued that to be able to build efficient tools and advantageous information services for researchers in the biomedical domain, these efforts should be based on the understanding of knowledge creation processes and work practices in this domain. The domain analytical approach forms an alternative view to those models, which try to identify similarities in patterns of seeking and use of information across the research domains. In this study, this approach has been used as an alternative to the generalizing model. The findings of the thesis support the arguments, which oppose the general view of information needs and uses. In information science, the study of information practices is quite a new research orientation. There are no previous studies, where the domain of biomedicine would have been in focus. Another important contribution of this study is the use of the activity theory as a theoretical research frame in the study of information practices. The activity theory appeared to be very helpful in setting information practices in the context. When implementing the activity theoretical research framework, information practices are comprehended as one mediating tool in the activity system of the research work. It aids the researcher to achieve the objectives of the research work.
  • Zhang, Ling Eleanor (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2015-08-11)
    “I wanted to be Chinese, once…I wanted China to be the place where I made a career and lived my life. I won’t be rushing back either. I have fallen out of love, woken from my China Dream.” “China has been a familiar destination for multinational corporations over the last few decades, but surprisingly it still remains one of the most challenging destinations for expatriates”, says Ling Eleanor Zhang, who will defend her doctoral thesis on the subject. Yet, according to Zhang, underneath the seemingly high expatriation failure rate exists an ever more routine reality of contemporary working life. A growing number of sojourners, from expatriates sent by headquarters, to self-initiated expatriates, to expatriate entrepreneurs, are now, for various reasons, becoming caught up in China. They experience a dizzying array of processes collectively labelled cross-cultural adjustment, acculturation or biculturalism. Based on comprehensive fieldwork, Zhang seeks to uncover the working and living realities of expatriates in China from a language and culture perspective. In her doctoral thesis, Zhang also presents the multifaceted linguistic challenges faced by expatriates from both their own perspective, as well as that of the host country employees. She further provides a contextual account of expatriate host country language proficiency on cross-cultural adjustment, and inductively builds an analytical framework for analysing why and how host country language matters. “Nordic expatriates, who are currently working and living in China, have different types of cultural identity, i.e. marginal bicultural identity, cosmopolitan identity, transitional identity, and monocultural identity”, says Zhang. “Factors such as organisational context, expatriates’ attitudes towards the host country language, as well as their network orientations, have influenced expatriates’ identification with home, host and a third culture”, she continues. The findings also reveal a number of strategies expatriates adopt in order to cope with the uncertainty and ambiguity, such as holding on to physical proof of groundedness, believing in individuality, realistically evaluating and accepting the marginality, and allowing for a certain degree of fluidity regarding one’s cultural identity.
  • Bor, Sanne (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2014-11-25)
    Organisations collaborate with one another. And they appear to do so more and more frequently in the recent decades. At the same time many of these efforts fail to deliver what the collaboration was set up for. This combination creates the basis for the fascinating and stimulating research field of inter-organisational relations – a field which is still very much in development. In this thesis the focus is on meta-organisations, associations in which organisations are members. The steering of such inter-organisational structures appears to need a novel approach, a collective, multi-level engagement which I set out to examine. The thesis is structured to foreground the process of the research and the development of my thinking. The study is conducted on R&D consortia funded as Networks of Excellence by the European Commission under Framework Programme 6. The study is based primarily on five case studies, by way of documentation and interviews. In addition, the study draws on data collected on 101 consortia and consortium agreements from 50 consortia. The thesis develops the theoretical understanding of meta-organisations and their organisational conditions and implications. Meta-organisation theory, thus far, has focused mainly on the implications following from having organisations as members. This thesis suggests adding to this theory the implications created by constitutional membership, that is, members that constitute the organisation. Constitutional membership makes a difference in three ways: it creates a clear boundary of the meta-organisation; it assumes collective ownership of the meta-organisation; and it makes possible the utilising of indirect resources – the resources of the member organisations, and most importantly their personnel – by the meta-organisation. In addition, the thesis develops a conceptual framework of steering processes, combining governance, management and administration. This framework shows how both decisions and mutual adjustment in top-down, bottom-up, and horizontal directions steer meta-organisations. The framework may, however, be fruitfully used to study other organisations as well. The findings from the analysis of the steering processes show that the utilisation of indirect resources decentralises the governance, management and administration of activities to the participants of member organisations who are undertaking these activities. The results also demonstrate that the governance, management and administration of undivided tasks centralises to those with formal management responsibility. In addition, the analysis shows how control and granting are avoided, externalised or formalised to deal with lack of hierarchical authority. These and other findings of the study seek to refine and extend the hypothesised conditions of meta-organisation theory.
  • Tuori, Annamari (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2014-11-20)
    Social categories, such as ethnicity and gender, have been shown to be important for people’s identities in organisations. Different categories of people can experience very different realities in terms of who they are or can be at work, often influenced by inequalities in relation to and indeed between the categories. However, the inequalities often tend to be silenced. At the same time, silence in individual people’s identity work in organisations has remained relatively unexamined in the research literature. Accordingly, this thesis examines identity work in organisations at the interface of social categories, inequalities, and silence(s). The thesis examines people’s identity work in organisations through a notion of ‘intersectional job-related identity work’, meaning the construction of a job-related identity at the intersections of different social categories. It focuses in particular on, first, how in identity work people relate to inequalities, and, second, how they are silent about social categories as a part of their identity work. The empirical context for the study is three small to medium-sized ICT companies in Finland. The thesis is based on 33 semi-structured interviews. The main findings of the study concern two aspects related to intersectional job-related identity work. First, the study identifies two different types of ‘intersectional strategies', namely, the combining and separating strategies that people engage in in their job-related identity work. These refer to different ways of combining and separating social categories with and from one’s job-related identity, respectively. Intersectional job-related identity work is not only about different ways of combining a job-related identity with social categories, but also about how social categories are kept separate from one’s identity at work. Moreover, in line with previous studies, this study suggests that inequalities, in terms of different positions and experiences of privilege and/or disadvantage are often central for how identity work is done. Second, the thesis identifies different ways in which people are (and are not) silent on social categories at work. It identifies organisational, interpersonal and individual level silences, identifying inequalities as the issue that the interviewees seem to be mostly silent on. Thus, while inequalities related to social categories seemed to be important for how intersectional job-related identity work is done, they are also simultaneously that which the interviewees seemed to be most silent on. The thesis contributes particularly to the research literature on identities, identity work and intersectionality in organisations, by providing new knowledge on both silence in and around (intersectional) identity work in organisations, and how social categories may be kept separate from job-related identity.
  • Forss, Maria (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2014-10-01)
    Den här avhandlingen handlar om hur fortbildning arrangeras för sjukskötare i en finländsk sjukvårdsorganisation. Fortbildning är viktig för organisationer och anses vara ett strategiskt verktyg för att möta, bemästra och skapa förändringar. Forskning kring fortbildning kretsar ofta kring pedagogiska lösningar eller lärande där fortbildning uppfattas som något neutralt. Min avhandling tillför forskning om fortbildning ett maktperspektiv och ett retoriskt perspektiv och jag behandlar inte fortbildning som något enbart positivt eftersom fortbildning även är handlingar med potential för normativ kontroll. Jag utgår ifrån att fortbildning är partisk och värdeladdad. Min titel för avhandlingen syftar på den mångbottnade förståelse som kan skönjas i begreppet fortbildning. Det finns begränsad forskning vilken ser fortbildning som uttryck för sammanhang och helheter. Inte heller finns forskning som ser arrangemangen kring fortbildning som handlingar vilka skapar/fråntar anställda makt eller forskning som ser fortbildning som uttryck för självreglerande handlingar. Det är till denna mindre uppmärksammade sida som jag riktar mitt vetenskapliga bidrag. Jag har tematiskt intervjuat sjukskötare och ledare samt utbildningsplanerare. Dessutom har jag analyserat organisationens texter om och för fortbildning samt observerat två olika fortbildningar. Avhandlingen är en omfattande fallstudie som bygger på 31 intervjuer av 23 informanter och på två olika icke-deltagande observationer. Jag har koncentrerat, kategoriserat och tematiserat mitt material och byggt broar mellan det som kan förefalla motsägelsefullt med hjälp av kritisk hermeneutik för att presentera det som resultat. Sedan har resultatet tolkats med hjälp av en konstruerad analysmodell som bygger på två olika analyslinser. Den ena är den kommunikativt handlande linsen och den andra linsen är governmentality. Resultaten nås således genom att analysera fortbildningsaktiviteter med hjälp av två olika teorier, kommunikativt handlande och governmentality. Från de tre viktigaste aktörernas perspektiv försöker jag skapa en helhetsbild av fortbildning som fenomen. Fortbildning granskas från tre aktörers perspektiv samtidigt och på detaljnivå med syftet att fånga en helhet. Som vetenskapligt bidrag är detta en kritisk organisationsstudie av HR verksamhet med fokus på fortbildning. Jag demonstrerar hur ledningens förväntningar och anställdas förväntningar kring fortbildning omöjligt kan mötas om det inte finns vilja, initiativ och plats för dem. Makt och positioner kan inte separeras från retoriska handlingar, något jag visar i avhandlingen.

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