Entrepreneurial Opportunity Exploitation under Different Institutional Settings

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https://helda.helsinki.fi/dhanken/handle/10227/276461
Title: Entrepreneurial Opportunity Exploitation under Different Institutional Settings
Author: Mohamadi, Ashkan
Contributor: Hanken School of Economics, Department of Management and Organisation, Entrepreneurship and Management
Belongs to series: Ekonomi och samhälle / Economics and society - 331
ISSN: 0424-7256 (printed)
2242-699X (PDF)
ISBN: 978-952-232-392-7
978-952-232-393-4
Abstract: The popularity of entrepreneurship as a practice is matched by scholars’ increasing attention to the phenomenon. In the management literature, entrepreneurship has become a field in its own right. Several scholars have argued that the right types of entrepreneurship, such as opportunity entrepreneurship, are an important driver of economic development and growth through employment, innovation, and structural transformation. Thus, it is unsurprising that finding ways to encourage entrepreneurship, especially the preferred types, is of interest to researchers and policymakers alike. In order to do so, they need to understand why the incidence of entrepreneurship is different from one country to another, and in that respect, country-level factors are determining the rate of entrepreneurship. These factors create the environment in which entrepreneurial opportunities and activities can be defined, generated, and also limited. Surprisingly, however, our understanding of the ways in which these national and institutional environments are fertile or fatal for entrepreneurship is limited, and study results on the benefits of various aspects of institutions to entrepreneurship continue to be debated. The overall objective of this thesis and the cases presented herein is to investigate how institutions and institutional factors affect opportunity exploitation at country level. We acknowledge that both institutional settings and the process of opportunity exploitation are complex phenomena. To address the research objective, this thesis builds on two co-authored research articles and one sole-authored. The methodological approach of the current work is nomothetic and quantitative. Moderation analysis at country level is the main approach applied in all the articles. As a result, we examined regression models that include interaction terms. In the articles, we perform fixed effect regression analyses. To be able to do the analyses, we utilize data from Adult Population Surveys of Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). Previously a challenge in studying country-level entrepreneurship, institutions, and policymaking has been the lack of data. In recent years, the rise of GEM as harmonized and internationally comparable database on entrepreneurial activities has created the opportunity more effectively to conduct research in those areas. This thesis fills two specific gaps. First, our articles examined under-investigated institutional settings, in order to stimulate future research. This furthered our understanding, recognizing several theoretical concepts such as institutional incongruence. Additionally, we conclude that different aspects of institutions should not be considered and studied in isolation. Second, instead of studying direct impacts on startup rates, we examined how opportunities are discovered and exploited at country level. This is important because opportunity discovery is a major step in the entrepreneurship process, and we learned more about economic development through entrepreneurship, following the research stating that opportunity entrepreneurship is the preferred type of entrepreneurship for that purpose.
URI: https://helda.helsinki.fi/dhanken/handle/10227/276461
Date: 2019-11-06
Subject: entrepreneurship
opportunities
institutional theory
corruption
regulative institutions
greasing the wheels
informal economy
institutional incongruence
perceived opportunities
panel data
GEM
WDIs
GCR
WGIs
nonlinear moderation
mediated moderation
fixed effects
general method of moments


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