Putting Parasemia in its phylogenetic place : a molecular analysis of the subtribe Arctiina (Lepidoptera)

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Rönkä , K , Mappes , J , Kaila , L J & Wahlberg , N 2016 , ' Putting Parasemia in its phylogenetic place : a molecular analysis of the subtribe Arctiina (Lepidoptera) ' Systematic Entomology , vol. 41 , no. 4 , pp. 844-853 . DOI: 10.1111/syen.12194

Title: Putting Parasemia in its phylogenetic place : a molecular analysis of the subtribe Arctiina (Lepidoptera)
Author: Rönkä, Katja; Mappes, Johanna; Kaila, Lauri Jaakko; Wahlberg, Niklas
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Zoology
Date: 2016-10
Language: eng
Number of pages: 10
Belongs to series: Systematic Entomology
ISSN: 0307-6970
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/176841
Abstract: Despite being popular among amateur and professional lepidopterologists and posing great opportunities for evolutionary research, the phylogenetic relationships of tiger moths (Erebidae: Arctiinae) are not well resolved. Here we provide the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the subtribe Arctiina with the basic aim of clarifying the phylogenetic position of the Wood Tiger Moth Parasemia plantaginis Hubner, a model species in evolutionary ecology. We sampled 89 species in 52 genera within Arctiina s.l., 11 species of Callimorphina and two outgroup species. We sequenced up to seven nuclear genes (CAD, GAPDH, IDH, MDH, Ef1, RpS5, Wingless) and one mitochondrial gene (COI) including the barcode region (a total of 5915 bp). Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference resulted in a well-resolved phylogenetic hypothesis, consisting of four clades within Arctiina s.s. and a clade comprising spilosomine species in addition to Callimorphina and outgroups. Based on our results, we present a new classification, where we consider the Diacrisia clade, Chelis clade, Apantesis clade, Micrarctia Seitz and Arctia clade as valid genera within Arctiina s.s., whereas Rhyparia Hubner syn.n. and Rhyparioides Butler syn.n. are synonymized with Diacrisia Hubner; Neoarctia Neumoegen & Dyar syn.n., Tancrea Pungeler syn.n., Hyperborea Grum-Grshimailo syn.n., Palearctia Ferguson syn.n., Holoarctia Ferguson syn.n., Sibirarctia Dubatolov syn.n. and Centrarctia Dubatolov syn.n. are synonymized with Chelis Rambur; Grammia Rambur syn.n., Orodemnias Wallengren syn.n., Mimarctia Neumoegen & Dyar syn.n., Notarctia Smith syn.n. and Holarctia Smith syn.n. are synonymized with Apantesis Walker; and Epicallia Hubner syn.n., Eucharia Hubner syn.n., Hyphoraia Hubner syn.n., Parasemia Hubner syn.n., Pericallia Hubner syn.n., Nemeophila Stephens syn.n., Ammobiota Wallengren syn.n., Platarctia Packard syn.n., Chionophila Guenee syn.n., Eupsychoma Grote syn.n., Gonerda Moore syn.n., Platyprepia Dyar syn.n., Preparctia Hampson syn.n., Oroncus Seitz syn.n., Acerbia Sotavalta syn.n., Pararctia Sotavalta syn.n., Borearctia Dubatolov syn.n., Sinoarctia Dubatolov syn.n. and Atlantarctia Dubatolov syn.n. are synonymized with Arctia Schrank, leading to 33 new genus-level synonymies. Our focal species Arctia plantaginiscomb.n. is placed as sister to Arctia festivacomb.n., another widespread aposematic species showing wing pattern variation. Our molecular hypothesis can be used as a basis when adding more species to the tree and tackling interesting evolutionary questions, such as the evolution of warning signalling and mimicry in tiger moths.
Subject: 1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
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