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  • Korkiakangas, Timo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The object of this study is the case marking of the subject in early medieval charter Latin. The work explores whether and how the nominative/accusative-type morphosyntactic alignment changed into a semantically motivated (active/inactive) alignment in Late Latin before the disappearance of the case system. It is known that the accusative originally the case of the direct object extended in Late Latin to the subject function in which Classical Latin allowed only the nominative. On this basis, it has been postulated that in Late Latin the nominative/accusative contrast was (re)semanticized so that the nominative came to encode all the Agent-like arguments and the accusative all the Patient-like arguments. The study examines which semantic and syntactic factors determine the selection of the subject case in each subject/finite verb combination in the Late Latin Charter Treebank (LLCT). The LLCT is an annotated corpus of Latin charter texts (c. 200,000 words) written in Tuscany between AD 714 and 869. The central result of the study is that the Latin of the LLCT shows a semantically based morphosyntactic alignment in those parts of nominal declension where the morphological contrast between nominative- and accusative-based forms is morphophonologically intact. The following picture of intransitivity split turns up: the low-animacy subjects of the LLCT occur more often in the accusative than do the agentive high-animacy subjects. Likewise, the accusative percentage of SO subject constructions is higher than that of A/SA subject constructions. The common denominator of the examined semantic variables is likely to be the control exercised by the subject over the verbal process. Syntactic factors seem to influence the case distribution pattern as well. For example, the immediate preverbal position of the subject implies a high retention of the nominative. The immediate preverbal position of SV(O) language is a canonical subject position where the syntactic complexity measured as dependency lengths is at its lowest and the cohesion of the verbal nucleus at its highest. Thus, a by then already marked nominative form results. The control of the subject over the verbal process (semantic variable) and the cohesion of the verbal nucleus (syntactic variable) may be partly conflated, i.e., both may affect the subject case selection in certain conditions.
  • Reponen, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Background: Preoperative risk assessment and reliable outcome reporting are vital for improving quality of care and patient safety. Studies on neurosurgical patients are surprisingly scarce, and no prospective reports on unselected elective craniotomy patients exist. The objectives of this study were to review the literature on the use of preoperative risk-assessment scores in elective cranial neurosurgery and to study preoperative risk prediction, short-term outcome reporting, and patient satisfaction in the first unselected, prospective cohort of adult elective craniotomy patients. Patients and Methods: We performed a systematic review of 25 studies on five preoperative scores [The American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification (ASA) score, the Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS), the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), the Sex, Karnofsky, ASA, Location, and Edema (SKALE) score, and the Charlson comorbidity score] in predicting outcome in elective cranial neurosurgery. We enrolled a prospective, unselected cohort of 418 adult elective craniotomy patients in the Department of Neurosurgery, Helsinki University Hospital. Evaluation of routinely collected preoperative data, original ASA score, Helsinki ASA score, and their combinations revealed their ability to predict in-hospital new central nervous system (CNS) deficits as well as systemic and infectious complications after elective craniotomy. We evaluated the reliability and accuracy of patient-reported outcomes, postoperative mRS scores, and mRS-score differences in reflecting short-term outcome. Overall patient satisfaction rate was determined, as were associations between high or low patient satisfaction and short-term postoperative outcome. Results: Evidence as to the applicability of preoperative risk-assessment scores in elective cranial neurosurgery is scarce, with KPS receiving the most support in the literature. None of the scores predicted all postoperative outcomes; the most applicable risk score varied with the outcome measure selected. The in-hospital mortality rate was 1.0% and the 30-day rate was 2.4%. In-hospital systemic and infectious complications occurred in 6.7% of patients, and new CNS deficits in 11.2%. Advanced age, preoperatively elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and high Helsinki ASA class were independent predictors of systemic and infectious complications. A combination of these variables identified one-fourth of the patients with systemic and infectious complications (p=0.005, OR 4.8, CI 1.5-15.9, AUC 0.766) and was associated with prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay (p=0.018) and hospital stay (p=0.004). The rate of overall complications was 46.4%, and the rate of major complications was 18.2%. Perioperative changes in mRS scores were inconsistent: among patients with no complications, the mRS score increased for 17.1% at hospital discharge and for 23.8% at 30 days. Moreover, 28.0% of patients with major complications showed no increase in mRS scores at hospital discharge. Associations between patient-reported postoperative subjective deterioration in functional status and both major and overall morbidity were significant. Furthermore, a simple unweighted composite score of PROs was more sensitive and specific than was 30-day dependent functional status (mRS score ≥3) in detecting both major and overall morbidity. In our cohort, 93.8% rated their overall satisfaction as good or excellent. Even 9 of 10 patients with postoperative major morbidity rated their satisfaction as high. Low patient satisfaction was associated neither with major (p=0.054) nor with overall (p=0.215) morbidity. Conclusions: Strong evidence supporting the use of any preoperative risk score in elective cranial neurosurgery is lacking. The Helsinki ASA score seems more suitable than the original ASA score for elective craniotomy patients, especially in combination with other preoperative risk predictors, but only for systemic and infectious complications. The rate of major complications in our cohort was moderately low considering the average age, comorbidities and operated lesions of the patients in our unselected study cohort. The postoperative mRS score and mRS-score differences were inconsistent with recorded complications, whereas PROs seem promising tools for outcomes reporting. Overall patient satisfaction was high, even in patients with complicated outcomes, and thus patient satisfaction is a poor proxy for treatment outcome and quality of care in elective cranial neurosurgery.
  • Sarnet, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Materials are crucial to the technological advances of society. The never ending need for data storage and new energy sources pushes research towards clear goals. Perhaps some of today's solutions can in the future be replaced or augmented with phase change memories and thermoelectric materials. Phase change materials store data in their amorphous and crystalline phases that have great differences in their electrical and optical properties. Thermoelectric materials can utilize waste heat and produce electricity from temperature differences. They can also be utilized in temperature control as they can be used to create a temperature difference by using electricity. Shrinking device sizes and increasing device complexity require that deposition methods such as atomic layer deposition (ALD) are used. ALD is based on sequential, saturative surface reactions. Precursors are brought to the surface one at a time, separated by purges. Because of the saturative reactions, each ALD cycle deposits a constant amount of material up to a monolayer, making film thickness control very simple. ALD of chalcogenides has focused mainly on sulfides, and the chemistries for selenide and telluride depositions have been limited. Pnictides have a similar situation. The ALD chemistries for arsenides include only a few combinations of precursors, and antimonides are barely demonstrated. This is why a new group of precursors was needed. The alkylsilyl non-metal precursors react very efficiently with metal halides in a dehalosilylation reaction. These types of reactions have now been utilized in both chalcogenide and pnictide thin film growth. In this thesis, several chalcogenide and pnictide ALD processes were studied in detail by utilizing the appropriate alkylsilyl non-metal precursors. In general, typical ALD characteristics were found. Growth rates saturated with respect to precursor pulse lengths; film thicknesses increased linearly with the number of deposition cycles; and the films were stoichiometric with low impurity contents. Application wise, the ALD chalcogenide and pnictide films had the required properties. The phase of the phase change materials could be repeatably and quickly changed, and the thermoelectric films showed a proper response to a temperature gradient.
  • Kannas, Vappu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    When the journals of L.M. (Lucy Maud) Montgomery (1874 1942) were first published in the 1980s, they became instantly widely read, just as her best-seller novel Anne of Green Gables had done in 1908. This can partly be explained by the literary quality and readability of the journals themselves. Not much, however, has been written about these aspects of the journals. Since our understanding of Montgomery s life is largely based on her journals, it is crucial that we take a closer look at what happens in the text. This dissertation is the first extensive study of the literary facets of Montgomery s life-writing mainly her journals, but also her letters and scrapbooks. With the focus on romance, both as a rhetorical device and subject matter, I explore the way Montgomery writes about her male and female love interests with what I term fictionalisation. By analysing the ten unpublished journal manuscripts as well as the published versions of them, The Selected Journals of L.M. Montgomery (1985 2004) and The Complete Journals of L.M. Montgomery (2012 2013), I approach diary as a literary genre. I explore questions such as how editing affects diary writing and its analysis and how literary conventions are employed in diaries. I demonstrate that for Montgomery the conventional romance is often a façade, one that is undercut by more subversive nuances, as presented for instance in the discourse of female intimacy. Intimate relationships with women come out as a more satisfying alternative to the conventional romance plot. Nevertheless, when this material is transferred to Montgomery s fiction it turns into the expected conventional romance between a man and a woman. Montgomery s self-conscious way of using romance must therefore be seen as one of the main features of her journals and one that may also influence our readings of her novels. Familiar literary conventions found in the diary, from the two suitors motif to the suicidal lesbian, show how aware Montgomery was of the literary and social customs of her time, whether of the 1890s or the 1930s. The use of the motif of the fallen woman, the tragedy of Hamlet, the fairy tale, especially Cinderella, the gothic novel and the satirical diary novel showcase the diversity of Montgomery s art as she recreates the story of her own romances in her life-writing. Although Montgomery s journal portrays a rather traditional romantic heroine, the forlorn heroine of a terribly sad life story , in Montgomery s own words, I maintain that analysing her journals in the same detailed way we analyse her fiction expands on our understanding both of her life and her writing. What is more, our understanding of diary as a genre can benefit from what is found in Montgomery s highly elaborate journals.
  • Tallavaara, Miikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Knowledge of prehistoric human population dynamics and its drivers is important for the understanding of cultural and biological evolution. Working within the human ecological framework, this study aims to contribute to that knowledge, by reconstructing hunter-gatherer population dynamics in Europe 30,000 4000 years ago and by exploring the role of climate change in population size fluctuations. Archaeological reconstructions of population dynamics in Pleistocene Europe and Holocene Finland are based on spatio-temporal distributions of archaeological radiocarbon dates, which are taken as a proxy of human activity in time and place. The reliability and validity of the population history reconstructions are evaluated by studying potentially biasing effects of research history, taphonomic loss of archaeological material, and radiocarbon calibration. In addition to making use of these archaeological methods, this study aims to develop and evaluate systematic means to use ethnographic data and palaeoclimate model simulations to reconstruct prehistoric hunter-gatherer population dynamics. This climate envelope modelling approach is used to simulate changes in population size and range in Europe between 30,000 and 13,000 years ago, and also to a lesser extent in Holocene Finland. The results suggest that archaeological reconstructions based on the distribution of radiocarbon dates are not determined or strongly affected by biases related to research history. Instead, the reconstructions appear to reflect a true demographic signal from the past. However, radiocarbon calibration introduces high-frequency variation in the reconstructions, which has to be taken into account before any demographic interpretations are made. Due to this non-demographic variation, the method may not be able to reliably detect short-term variation in past population size and it is thus currently better suited to tracking long-term trends in population history. The taphonomic loss of archaeological material can potentially have a strong impact on the distribution of archaeological radiocarbon dates, but the current methods of taphonomic correction may not sufficiently take into account the geographical variability in taphonomic factors. In the future, it is therefore important to further develop taphonomic correction methods. The ability of the climate envelope model simulation of human population to replicate archaeological patterns indicates that this novel approach is suitable for studying long-term hunter-gatherer population dynamics. The method allows not only the exploration of relative changes in population size, but also the estimation of absolute population density and size. It may also be able to detect potential inadequacies in the geographical distribution of archaeological data. In the Finnish data, the correlation between the archaeological population size reconstruction and palaeoclimatic data suggests that the climate was an important driver of long-term hunter-gatherer population dynamics, and that population appears to have changed in equilibrium with climate. The impact of the climate on human population was mostly indirect, mediated by its impacts on environmental production and consequently on food availability. The important role of climate is also supported by the correspondence between archaeological population reconstruction and the climate envelope model simulation of past human population size, which assumes long-term population dynamics to be in equilibrium with the climate. This correspondence also suggests that the impact of the climate on terrestrially adapted hunter-gatherer population dynamics has remained relatively constant from the Late Pleistocene to the present.
  • Weiste, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The quality of the therapeutic relationship is highly significant for treatment outcomes in mental healthcare. While the value of the relationship has been clearly documented, the various aspects of how the relationship is actualized in clinical practice have remained unclear. This dissertation breaks new ground in understanding how the therapeutic relationship is manifested in three forms of therapeutic interaction: psychoanalysis, cognitive psychotherapy and resource-centred counselling. The method of conversation analysis is applied to compare these approaches and reveal how specific aspects of the therapeutic relationship are managed in interaction: 1) how therapists express empathy and respond to clients talk on their subjective emotional experiences, 2) how therapists work with experiences that belong to clients personal domains of knowledge, and 3) how disagreements are expressed and relational stress managed in therapeutic interaction. The data comprise audio- and video-recorded encounters from each therapeutic approach (86 encounters in total). The data analysis reveals the fine-grained interactional practices used in the management of the therapeutic relationship. In all the therapeutic approaches, formulating the client s emotional experience allowed the therapists to display empathic understanding, and prosodic features were important for marking the formulation as either empathic or challenging. In psychoanalysis and cognitive psychotherapy, the client s emotional experiences were typically validated, interpreted or challenged. In the resource-centred approach, the clinicians sought to focus on successful experiences and praised clients agency and competence, while shifting the focus away from their difficult emotional experiences. The data analysis also highlights the complex relationship between emotions and epistemics and describes how a delicate balance between empathic and challenging interventions is manifested in therapists supportive and unsupportive moves during extended disagreement sequences. This dissertation contributes to three areas of research: 1) clinical research, as it underlines the importance of investigating the actions of the therapist and client in a relational way, furthering comprehension of how the processes associated with the therapeutic relationship appear in the context of interaction between therapist and client; 2) sociological studies on mental health, as this study illustrates some important institutional differences between psychotherapy and psychiatric outpatient care; 3) conversation analysis, as this research provides the first broader systematic comparison of interactional practices in different therapeutic approaches.
  • Häikiö, Kaarina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The purpose of this study is to shed light on the status of the patient in health policies implemented in order to secure patients access to care and to improve the quality of the care. The study focuses on patients and the treatment guarantee from the viewpoints of government and nongovernmental organisations in 2004-2010. The treatment guarantee is the only segment of legislation that gives patients concrete assurance of access to treatment and quality care. The experiences of patients and organisations in combination with inconsistencies in official follow-up data reinforce the need for this study. The three-level theoretical framework of the study based on the discourse-historical approach in Ruth Wodak s linguistic model. It builds on the impressive background of period pieces and modern-day diagnostics (zeitdiagnose), special phenomena such as the notion of patients as actors in the health policy debate, and language management. The task of the study is to describe the status of patients in the context of the treatment guarantee, as well as to outlines the relationship of public health organisations and government authorities to the reform in national health policy over the period 2004-2010. The study addresses questions about the status of patients and questions about the viewpoints of government and public health organisations concerning the treatment guarantee. The research material comprises documents from government and organisations, data from interviews with experts, and articles from the Helsingin Sanomat daily newspaper. Content analysis occasionally shifts to discourse analysis in the course of the study. The government authorities expected the treatment guarantee as a major health care reform, but according to the experts' interviews it did no turn out that way partly due to the weak implementation. National government authorities and public health organisations differ in use of the concept of a treatment guarantee. The public health organisations were not concerned about a usage threshold for use the concept of a treatment guarantee. Government authorities had different practices in use the concept. At the beginning of the research period, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health , unlike other government authorities, shunned the concept. When the matter was dealt with in Parliament, however, the opposition referred to the concept of a treatment guarantee. Perceptions about the content of the treatment guarantee varied among the actors, and its application changed during the research period. Narrowly speaking it meant that access to treatment was only provided within a certain time frame. The treatment guarantee was usually written without mentioning the patient. If the patient was mentioned in the documents from the government and public health organisations he or she was usually referred to as an object. There were signs of imminent change in the preparatory documents of the Health Care Act in 2010. The documents still described the patient as an object, but they were also described as an actor. In documents from public health organisations, the patient was perceived as an active player in a generally positive way. In documents from the government, the patient was positively perceived as an object. In parliament, when the legislative process for the treatment guarantee drew to a close, members of parliament began speaking more about the economy and less about the patients, nor were the patient viewed as a potential voter. Public health organisations discussed the empowerment of patients just before the reform, but the trend quickly diminished after the legal reforms were initiated in March 2005.These organisations wrote about the treatment guarantee as a patient right as late as 2006. According to the data from experts interviews the treatment guarantee did not give protection to patient.
  • Raita, Eeva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    A vast amount of our daily experiences emerge in the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as smartphones and tablets. A major trend for studying these experiences is user experience research in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI). While this string of research has focused on the subjectivity of user experiences, less is known about their social origins, or intersubjectivity. I draw on the concept of mediation to develop an understanding of how user experience is situated not inside the head of the individual, but rather also to the social and material context. I argue that we can increase our understanding of user experience by approaching it as a phenomenon that encompasses multilayer mediation. User experience is not mediated only by ICT use, but also by social processes. The empirical research utilizes a mixed methods approach and combines quantitative and qualitative methods. I investigate how social processes mediate everyday user experiences by focusing on three particular social processes: interpretations, expectations, and habits. The fourth study broadens understanding of the mediating role of ICT use by addressing the central yet ambiguous relationship between user experience and usability. Each of the studied processes mediates user experience in a unique way. First, user experiences do not concern only the present user system interaction; they are adjusted and compared to expectations derived from others opinions. Second, experiences with a given artifact differ between people because of interpretative flexibility: the same artifact can be interpreted and experienced very differently, with much depending on socially shared perspectives. Third, social processes are not only about meaning-making but they concern also practices. ICT is commonly experienced through repetitive behavior, or habits, which connect the user to social customs. Last, usability is a process that mediates the flow of experiencing. Good usability lets users engage in technology-mediated experiences, but poor usability forces users to focus on the broken device. The dissertation advances user experience research by articulating the multilayer mediation of everyday experiences with ICT. It questions the individual-centric emphasis in prominent mainstream research by expanding the understanding of how individual s user experiences are socially mediated. It ties together scientific traditions to pave way for user experience design, development and evaluation that is socially discerning. Thereby social psychological theories and research methods offer a solid base for understanding and capturing the intersubjectivity of user experiences. Importantly, the work denotes that relationships to other people are always part of our user experiences even when we are ostensibly by ourselves.
  • Quintero, Ileana B. (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) has been linked to prostate cancer since the mid-1930s. The main research approach of PAP over that time has been based on its role in the human prostate. The regulatory mechanisms of expression of the PAP gene have also been studied, giving us information about the regulatory elements in the gene and the transcription factors that affect the gene expression in the prostatic tissue. However, little was known until recently about this protein s role and physiological function in other tissues. Our group generated and used a PAP-deficient mouse and was able to show that PAP is expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord in mice. This is the same protein as thiamine monophosphatase (TMPase) whose enzymatic activity has been used for five decades to mark primary sensory neurons. In these tissues, PAP acts as an ecto-5'-nucleotidase and is able to dephosphorylate AMP to adenosine, and therefore produce an anti-nociceptive effect due to the binding of adenosine to the A1-adenosine receptor. We analyzed the ACPP gene, which enabled us to describe a new transmembrane isoform for PAP (TMPAP). This novel PAP isoform is produced by alternative splicing of the 11th exon of the ACPP gene. The alternative splicing is present in species such as the human, mouse and rat. The newly discovered isoform is widely expressed in human and mouse tissues and contains a tyrosine sequence (YxxΦ) in its carboxyl-terminus, which directs the protein to endocytosis. We have also corroborated its functionality by co-localization studies with different organelle markers in the endosomal/lysosomal pathway (I). The generation of a PAP-deficient mouse also enabled us to study the function/s of PAP in vivo. The lack of PAP in this mouse model led to the gradual changes in the mouse prostate that finally culminated with the development of prostate adenocarcinoma at the age of 12 months. Microarray analyses of different tissues that compared the PAP deficient mouse with the wild type (WT) mouse revealed changes in genes related to the vesicular trafficking, which support our previous results and led us to the conclusion that TMPAP could be involved in the regulation of the vesicular trafficking. We also detected the interaction between TMPAP and snapin, a SNARE (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein Receptor) associated protein, by yeast two-hybrid screening, co-localization and FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) analysis. We concluded that, the disruption of this interaction in the PAP-deficient mouse leads to a disturbance in the vesicular transport of the cell and to the development of prostate adenocarcinoma in the PAP-deficient mouse prostate (II). Furthermore, we showed that the PAP-deficient mice present multiple behavioral and neurochemical alterations including increased size of brain lateral ventricles, hyperdopaminergic deregulation, and altered GABAergic transmission, symptoms that indicate that PAP also disturbes the normal function of the central nervous system (III). Snapin protein in the brain has been described as a protein important for the vesicular transport and for the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane, and we observed that the lack of PAP in GABAergic neurons leads to a change in the localization of snapin in the PAP-deficient mouse (III), which could indicate that as in the prostate a dysregulated vesicular trafficking could be the reason for the detected phenotype. The discovery of the new TMPAP and its localization in the endosomal/lysosomal pathway enabled an understanding of the phenotypic changes that occur in the PAP-deficient mouse. We hypothesized that TMPAP regulates vesicular trafficking by interacting with snapin, and its deficiency leads to a dysregulation of the endo-/exocytosis cycle, which produces the observed alterations in the mouse organs and tissues. The results obtained throughout this research project have opened up new lines of research related to PAP physiological function, and a deeper understanding of the expression, regulation and function of this protein could lead to new clinical applications.
  • Lehtonen, Irma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    English abstract This dissertation deals with the development process of bisexuality, identifying oneself as bisexual, acknowledging bisexuality in a heterosexual relationship, and the disclosure of bisexuality in a relationship assumed to be heterosexual. Bisexuality as a phenomenon is, to a large extent, both unacknowledged and invisible, and has been largely ignored in studies of relationships. Within the context of social work, customers who identify themselves as bisexuals often experience feelings of fear and anxiety because of their sexual orientation especially in terms of interacting with the social workers, being labelled as something different, and hence having to conceal their sexual orientation. Because of these anxieties, social workers need more diverse models and practices that enable them to help their customers with empathy and respect regardless of their sexual orientation. This dissertation is based on three main research questions: first, through what kind of a process does an individual disclose and identify bisexuality, second, what kind of phases does an individual go through when acknowledging bisexuality in someone close to them, and third, what happens in a relationship when it turns out that a person who identifies as bisexual has a relationship with a third party of the same gender. In addition to these, I am also interested in what emotions are experienced in a relationship when an individual´s bisexuality is disclosed to the partner, and how relationships are influenced and shaped by heteronormativity. One of the key concepts in this dissertation is heteronormativity, which describes a process dividing individuals into two separate genders and assuming romantic emotions to take place only between individuals of different genders. Heteronormative practices are experienced by and limited mostly to individuals whose sexuality deviates from the norm. For them, heteronormativity is regarded as imposing a set of norms regarding what is the status quo, natural, normative, and the only way to live a meaningful life. Within the public domain, heteronormativity is seldom questioned or challenged, and it is closely related to issues such as power and secrecy. Heteronormativity aims at shaping and maintaining our collective understanding of relationships in contemporary societies as something taking place between a man and a woman. As a counterforce to this, queer theories aim at challenging and questioning our norms and assumptions related to relationships by broadening the scope of relationships outside theas purely heterosexual. Methodologically, this dissertation approaches bisexuality from the narrative point of view. This dissertation thus assumes that bisexuality can be investigated through data collected from individual life stories. Life stories enable us to identify events and stories that shape an individual s understanding of bisexuality and relationships. The narrative approach served as a window to the authors of the life stories, their lives, as well as their life stories. Through the stories, the authors discussed their feelings and how they experienced the disclosure of bisexuality in their relationships. The data for this dissertation consists of sixty such life stories that deal with experiences related to bisexuality, its impact on the heterosexual relationship, and emotions and feelings closely related to bisexuality. This data was qualitatively analysed by means of both narrative and content analysis. Stories about bisexuality blend together numerous overlapping stories about relationships, emotions, memories, social relations, fears, secrecy, acknowledging and identifying bisexuality, as well as being bisexual. The authors narrate their stories through interactive processes by inviting the listener to be an active participant. Storytelling is inherently not only about making sense, but also about identity building and peer support. Within this context, narratives can either support or inhibit the emergence of stories. The main finding of this dissertation is that bisexuality develops over time. This development can be seen as a trajectory with separate, yet overlapping, phases. Bisexuality is seldom easily voiced or revealed to others, which is why secrecy closely shadows it. This is partially explained by flexibility: the ability to portray oneself either as heterosexual or homosexual. Bisexuality, then, seems to be something that is seldom publicly shared with other members of the society. People who identify themselves as bisexual often conceal it from their spouses and loved ones mostly because they are afraid of rejection and of being cast in the pariah class. However, it seems that a change is taking place in the Finnish society: especially younger generations especially are more open about their bisexuality, and it is becoming more common to share it with a prospective partner in the beginning of a relationship. Keywords: sexuality, bisexuality, heteronormativity, emotions, narratives
  • Purkamo, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Microbial life in the deep subsurface contributes significantly to overall biomass on Earth. Although the microbial communities inhabiting the deep subsurface are abundant, little is known about their diversity, activity, interactions and role in global biogeochemical cycles. The diversity of microbial life in the deep terrestrial subsurface of the Fennoscandian shield was studied with molecular biological methods. The Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole provides access to crystalline bedrock fluids that are estimated to be tens of millions of years old. Characterization of the indigenous bacterial and archaeal communities in addition to microbial communities with important functional properties in bedrock fluids was done from a depth range of 180 m to 2300 m. Microbial community profiling and assessment of possible functional processes was done with molecular fingerprinting, cloning and sequencing methods combined with suitable statistical and bioinformatics analyses. Low cell numbers but high diversity was characteristic to the microbial communities of the Outokumpu deep subsurface. The microbial communities in the fracture zones had in general fewer cells than those in the mixed fluids of the drill hole. Comamonadaceae, Peptococcaceae and Anaerobrancaceae were prevalent bacterial members of the microbial communities in the fracture fluids. Archaea were a minority in microbial communities. Sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogens were detected at several depths. Microbial communities resembled those detected from other deep Fennoscandian Shield subsurface sites. Furthermore, sulfate reducing communities and archaeal communities resembled those found from the deep subsurface of South Africa. Investigation on carbon assimilation strategies of the microbial communities revealed that mainly heterotrophic Clostridia were responsible for CO2 fixation in this habitat. Representatives of Burkholderiales and Clostridia formed the core microbial community and these were also identified to be the keystone genera. The microbial communities of Outokumpu fractures share similarity with those of serpentinization-driven ecosystems. Energy and carbon substrates formed in serpentinization reactions of ophiolitic rocks in Outokumpu may sustain the microbial communities in this deep subsurface environment.
  • Kauppinen, Saara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study discusses the language, especially the communicative structures, of Greek dialogue epigrams. The central research questions include: Who are the speakers? How are they identified? How does the recipient know when the speaker changes? How is the turn-division implied? What are the functions of the speakers? In the study, all the dialogue verse inscriptions are collected and divided according to typology that was created for this study and which is based on the pair structure. The most common adjacency pair of dialogue epigrams is a question answer pair, and many of the elements studied here are features of question structures, but other pairs, such as greeting pairs, are also taken into account. The dialogues contain either one adjacency pair (type 1), several of them (type 2) or longer, often narrative units that form pair-like structures (type 3). The types, their variants and features of the language characteristic of each are discussed using examples. Elements such as addresses, imperatives and particles are central to my argument, and speaker roles and pair structure variants are also discussed. Non-inscriptional epigrams are given as parallels for each type, and the mutual influence between them and the verse inscriptions is discussed using examples. The reception situation and possible performance of the epigrams is also discussed, and on the basis of various examples, it is stated that the representation of the speakers often implies the complex reception situation, part of which was most probably reading the epigram aloud. Epigraphic methods are used and combined, and the linguistic aspect brings a new perspective to epigraphic studies. The comparison of the verse inscriptions and the literary ones contributes to ongoing discussions on the epigram genre and its inscriptional counterparts. The material discussed is mainly from the Roman period, a phase less well discussed in recent epigram studies, and the study thus adds to our knowledge of the genre and the mutual influence between the post-Hellenistic verse inscriptions and non-inscriptional epigrams.
  • Niemi, Anna-Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The study focuses on special needs education after basic education, particularly in the context of pre-vocational and vocational education and training. It analyses the positions of young people and the formation of their educational paths and choice-making. The starting point of the study is to consider the definitions given to the concepts of special and special educational needs . I ask, 1) how are special educational needs and students positions defined in pre-vocational and vocational education and training; 2) how are young people s educational paths, choices and subjectivities constructed in the practices of special needs education; and 3) how do different pedagogical practices restrict or enable participation in learning and studies of students regarded as having special educational needs? The study is positioned in the fields of sociology of education, disability studies, youth studies and gender studies. It includes five articles and a summary chapter. Methodologically, the study is multi-sited ethnographic research, contextualised in current education policy. The research data derives from two institutes of vocational education and training, while observing Metalwork and Machinery classes and Preparatory Training classes for disabled students over a six-month period. The data consist of interviews, field notes and education policy documents. In addition, the data also include life-historical interviews with 27 young adults as part of the Equality is Priority research project. My analytical approach is ethnographic and discursive. The practices of vocational education were found to be balanced between an inclusive education discourse and an individual, medical orientation that focuses on the identification of (special) needs. Visible both in the everyday life of vocational education and in education policy documents were, on the one hand, support for inclusive education, and on the other, a tendency to seek assurance from special needs statements and diagnoses. Many of the young people and professionals interviewed in the study interpreted the segregated arrangements of special needs education and the definition of special needs itself as stigmatizing. Combining the support needed by each student with general teaching was suggested as a pedagogic practice to combat stigmatization. Structural factors associated with the education system such as study field-specific entrance requirements, educational content, pedagogical practices and available support in each field influence how students regarded as having special educational needs are admitted and become attached to vocational education. For many young people applying and being accepted into upper secondary education seems to be complex and challenging. When addressing their own educational hopes and negotiating the options offered in study counselling, many did so in various roundabout ways. I propose that educational choices be seen as processes where young people shape their subjectivities and create spaces for their agency while negotiating the guidance offered by professional adults. The study suggests that in order to develop education in line with the objectives of an inclusive education policy, stereotypical definitions and meanings of special needs and disability should be constantly re-considered and questioned.
  • Arola, Teppo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, the limits of conventional energy reservoirs and the instability risks related to energy transport have forced nations to promote the utilisation of renewable energy reservoirs. Groundwater can be seen as an option for renewable energy utilisation and not only a source of individual or municipal drinking water. Finland has multiple groundwater reservoirs that are easily exploitable, but groundwater energy is not commonly used for renewable energy production. The purpose of this thesis study was to explore the groundwater energy potential in Finland, a region with low temperature groundwater. Cases at three different scales were investigated to provide a reliable assessment of the groundwater energy potential in Finland. Firstly, the national groundwater energy potential was mapped for aquifers classified for water supply purposes that are under urban or industrial land use. Secondly, the urbanisation effect on the peak heating and peak cooling power of groundwater was investigated for three Finnish cities, and finally, the long-term groundwater energy potential was modelled for 20 detached houses, 3 apartment buildings and a shopping centre. The thesis connects scientific information on hydro- and thermogeology with the energy efficiency of buildings to produce accurate information concerning groundwater energy utilisation. Hydrological and thermogeological data were used together with accurate data on the energy demands of buildings. The heating and cooling power of groundwater was estimated based on the groundwater flux, temperature and heat capacity and the efficiency of the heat transfer system. The power producible from groundwater was compared with the heating and cooling demands of buildings to calculate the concrete groundwater energy potential. Approximately 20% to 40% of annually constructed residential buildings could be heated utilising groundwater from classified aquifers that already are under urban land use in Finland. These aquifers contain approximately 40 to 45 MW of heating power. In total, 55 to 60 MW of heat load could be utilised with heat pumps. Urbanisation increases the heating energy potential of groundwater. This is due anthropogenic heat flux to the subsurface, which increases the groundwater temperatures in urbanised areas. The average groundwater temperature was 3 to 4 °C higher in city centres than in rural areas. Approximately 50% to 60% more peak heating power could be utilised from urbanised compared with rural areas. Groundwater maintained its long term heating and cooling potential during 50 years of modelled operation in an area where the natural groundwater temperature is 4.9 °C. Long-term energy utilisation created a cold groundwater plume downstream, in which the temperature decreased by 1 to 2.5 °C within a distance of 300 m from the site. Our results demonstrate that groundwater can be effectively utilised down to a temperature of 4 °C. Groundwater can form a significant local renewable energy resource in Finland. It is important to recognise and utilise all renewable energy reservoirs to achieve the internationally binding climatological targets of the country. Groundwater energy utilisation should be noted as one easily exploitable option to increase the use of renewable energy resources in a region where the natural groundwater temperature is low. The methods presented in this thesis can be applied when mapping and designing groundwater energy systems in nationwide- to property-scale projects. Accurate information on hydro- and thermogeology together with the energy demands of buildings is essential for successful system operation.
  • Kivikangas, J Matias (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Arguably, the emotions elicited by playing are the reason why people play digital games. Social interaction is an important source of emotion during game play, but research on it is rather sparse. In this dissertation I briefly review the emotion-theoretic literature in order to better understand what emotion means in the context of games, and how this should be taken into account when measuring emotions related to a game experience. Study I presents a review of the use of psychophysiological methods in game research. I show that the theoretical background behind these methods generally tends to be neglected. This could be remedied by a theoretical framework that integrates the understanding of emotions and explicitly describes the links between different emotion measures and the theoretical concepts they are professed to reflect. I present my proposition for the first step towards such a framework in Study II. I employ the sociality characteristics framework by de Kort and IJsselsteijn (2008) and my interpretation of the social factors in order to study the effect of the central social context factors on the emotional game experience. Study III presents evidence that in addition to tonic physiological levels, the relationship between the participants also affects the momentary, phasic responses to the key game events victory and defeat. In particular, although physiological signals can, to a certain extent, be used to assess emotional experiences (such as positive responses to a victory), in some cases the typical psychophysiological mappings may even be completely opposite. Interpreting these signals requires a broader theoretical understanding than what is typically acknowledged. Study IV supports the earlier findings that competition is experienced more positively than cooperation but that the effect is dependent on gender, as this was found only in males. For females, there was no difference between the two modes, and no difference in negative activation. In addition, self-reports concerning social presence suggested that this concept is not always associated with higher positive emotions, while a form of friendly rivalry (associated with lower social presence) might be experienced positively a finding apparently new in existing literature. Finally, Study V provides insight into the practical significance of the measurements with a predictive validity study, showing practical effects how the certain kinds of game experiences may lead to greater game use and preference, but that these links are not as simple as previously suggested. In sum, this work offers new knowledge on how social context factors are generally related to the game experience, on how emotions can be studied in game research and what theoretical considerations should be taken into account, and on the emotional effects of particular social context factors during play. The results are mainly useful for further basic game research, but they have also potential implications for general emotion research, the game industry, and in the long run, society at large.
  • Saukkonen, Suvi (2015)
    Disruptive behavior is one of the most common psychiatric problems in children and adolescents. Psychopathic-like features designate a group of children and adolescents manifesting a severe, aggressive, and persistent pattern of disruptive behavior. These features have many similarities with adult psychopathy. More research is needed to gain an understanding of the different developmental trajectories for psychopathic-like behavior style in children and adolescents. The current study aimed to investigate cognitive, psychosocial, and personality-related characteristics associated with disruptive behavior in children and adolescents. In addition, psychometric properties of one of the psychopathy measures, Antisocial Process Screening Device Self-Report (APSD-SR), were evaluated. In the first study, the working memory (WM) function of school-aged children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)/Conduct Disorder (CD) was compared with age- and gender-matched normative controls. The comorbid diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was controlled for in the patient group. WM function was examined using n-back tasks. The main finding of this study was that patients performed worse on WM tasks than controls, even after controlling for the diagnosis of ADHD. The results suggest that children with disruptive behavior disorders (i.e. ODD and CD) have executive function (EF) deficits, like poor WM, that are not accounted for the comorbid diagnosis of ADHD. The second study, using the data from the Finnish Self-Report Delinquency Study 2012 (FSRD-12), assessed the factor structure and internal consistencies of the APSD-SR in a community sample of 15- to 16-year-old youth (n = 4,855, 51% girls). A three-factor structure of APSD-SR was found to fit the data best, with three meaningful subscales representing narcissism, impulsivity, and callous-unemotional features. The internal consistencies for these subscales were adequate. The results suggest that the self-report version of APSD is a promising screening tool for measuring psychopathic-like features in community youth. The third study used the same FSRD-12 data and examined different types of weapon carrying among youth, and psychosocial and personality-related factors associated with carrying a weapon, especially focusing on the relationship between psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying. The results showed that adolescents carrying weapons had a large cluster of problems in their lives, which were differentiated by the type of weapon carried. In addition, psychopathic-like features were associated with an increased likelihood of carrying any type of weapon (knife, gun, other weapon such as knuckleduster, chain, or pepperspray), but the association was strongest with carrying a gun. This association was significant even after controlling for a variety of psychosocial factors. The findings suggest that psychopathic-like features are strongly related to a higher risk of weapon carrying. Furthermore, the findings underscore the need for a comprehensive evaluation of an adolescent s psychosocial situation, when weapon carrying is identified. Finally, the fourth study investigated the relationship between victimization experiences and psychopathic-like features in youth by using the same FSRD-12 data. The results revealed that victimization was related to psychopathic-like features in youth, even more strongly in girls than in boys. Interestingly, the association between victimization and psychopathic-like features was stronger for recent experiences of victimization than past experiences. The results highlight the need for evaluating victimization experiences when psychopathic-like features are present in youth. Furthermore, some of the juveniles may show psychopathic-like behavior style as a means to cope with trauma.
  • Klein, Ottilie ([according to German regulations a publication prior to the public examination is not permitted], 2015)
    The doctoral thesis investigates the cultural function of dramatic narratives of female murder. For this purpose, the study offers textual analyses of plays that feature female murder as a central event. Paying close attention to each play s plot, form, and dramaturgy, the study seeks to attach meaning to the dramatic function of women s homicidal action. The survey of women who kill in modern American drama that is at the heart of the study covers a seventy-year span (1910s - 1980s) that allows a mapping out of continuities and transitions in dramatizations of female murder. Given the politically charged nature of the figure of the female murderer, the study argues that there are two types of narratives of female murder in modern American drama (and beyond): one that uses women s homicidal action as a mechanism to create disorder at the level of plot to ultimately contain women s lethal threat by re-establishing order and thereby reinforcing dominant ideology, so-called narratives of containment; and one that exploits the ideologically disruptive potential of the female murderer to comment on social ills or to dismantle ideological contradictions, so-called lethal performances. The study concludes that the cultural function of narratives of female murder is intricately connected with the cultural and historical moment from which they emerge and the type of narrative they respond to.
  • Vogt, Robert (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Theory and Typology of Narrative Unreliability (Theorie und Typologie narrativer Unzuverlässigkeit) „The theory of unreliable narration is obviously one of the current boom-sectors of what Manfred Jahn and Ansgar Nünning have called the ‘narratological industry’“, Tom Kindt (2008: 129) writes. In a similar vein, D’hoker and Martens (2008: 2) detect „an almost uncanny centrality and importance“of the concept in the field of narratology. Indeed, debates concerning the categorization of different forms of unreliable narration, the scope of the concept and explanation models based on different approaches enjoy wide currency. In the study, I aim to develop a theory and typology of narrative unreliability. Following McHale (1981: 185) that “[b]efore a phenomenon can be explained it must first exist for those who would explain it, which means that it must be constituted as a category with boundaries and a name“, chapter II establishes a typology of narrative unreliability. Claiming that the concept of unreliability is used in different ways in narratology, I distinguish three basic forms. First, unreliability can be understood as a trait of a homodiegetic narrator or a focalizer which manifests as a questionable account or interpretation of the events in the narrative world (ironic unreliability). Second, unreliability can be regarded as a feature of the narrative discourse which leaves open whether or not a narrator or a focalizer depicts or evaluates the narrative world in an adequate way (ambiguous unreliability). Third, unreliability can designate a feature of the narrative discourse which leads the reader astray about the actual events in the fictional world (alterated unreliability). Having defined the field of inquiry, chapter III sets out to develop a model to describe and explain these different forms of narrative unreliability. After addressing some of the theoretical stumbling blocks narratologists face when theorizing narrative unreliability in fictional works, chapters IV and V I outline how insights from literary possible-worlds and cognitive narratology might help to develop a better understanding of how readers construct fictional universes in texts featuring ironic, ambiguous, and alterated unreliability. According to literary possible-worlds theory, fictional works create their own modal system of reality which consists of a multitude of worlds. In the center of each fictional universe is the so-called ‘textual actual world’ (TAW) which is surrounded by the different characters’, focalizer’s or narrator’s mental worlds. Within this theoretical framework, narrative unreliability occurs in literary works when the narrator’s or focalizer’s mental world is in conflict with TAW. As the relations between different worlds within a fictional universe are the result of interpretative processes, I argue that the main difference between the three forms of narrative unreliability lies in the way a reader makes sense of world conflicts: how he distinguishes different worlds, how he detects conflicting worlds and how he puts conflicting worlds in a hierarchical order to determine what is fact in the fictional universe. Since „possible-world approaches do not ultimately treat fictional worlds as cognitive products and do not deal with cognitive processing“ (Semino 2003: 89), chapter V addresses the question of how a reader constructs fictional universes in unreliable narratives. By recourse to insights from cognitive science – including approaches belonging to the “information processing paradigm” as well as those belonging to the mental “disposition paradigm” – I explain how readers distinguish different worlds, detect conflicting worlds and put these into a hierarchical order. In order to illustrate the scope and variety of narrative unreliability, I discuss six British and American literary works in chapters VI to VIII. Chapter VI focuses on ironic unreliability in Charles Dickens’ David Copperfield and in Kazuo Ishiguro’s The Remains of the Day. Chapter VII analyses ambiguous unreliability in Ford Madox Ford’s The Good Soldier and in Bret Easton Ellis’ American Psycho. Ambrose Bierce’s “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge” and Chuck Palahniuk’s Fight Club serve as examples of alterated unreliable narration (chapter VIII). In chapter IX, I discuss the metacognitive dimension of narrative unreliability. Assuming that „[narratives] operat[e] as an instrument of mind in the construction of reality“ (Bruner 1991: 6), I claim that narrative unreliability highlights and reflects cognitive processing of a narrator, of a focalizer, or of a reader in different ways. While ironic unreliability puts the emphasis on the idiosyncratic ways of world-making of a cognitive center (either of a homodiegetic narrator or of a focalizer), alterated unreliability with its surprising plot twist stimulates readers to go backwards and monitor how he or she was led down a garden path. I analyse Ian McEwan’s Atonement to demonstrate that the characters’ (mistaken) attempts to construct reality (ironic-unreliable focalization) is mirrored by the reader’s mistaken reconstruction of the facts and events in the fictional world (alterated-unreliable narration). The study concludes with a summary of the most important insights and a brief reflection on how the theory can be applied to other media such as film, comics or video games (chapter X).
  • Llarena, Ann-Katrin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    During the last 40 years, Campylobacter has emerged as the number one cause of human gasteroenteritis in the developed world, of which C. jejuni accounts for the majority of cases. This Campylobacter species has an extremely broad host-range, and has been isolated from arctic penguins to cattle. Broiler chickens has traditionally been considered as the reservoir of importance for public health, but evidence suggests that other source, both known and unknown, are relevant. To decrease the number of human infections, targeted control efforts to reduce C. jejuni exposure to humans are needed. Such control efforts relies on knowledge on the nature of C. jejuni in both established and candidate sources such as broilers and wild birds, respectively, and reliable methods to trace and attribute human infections. Therefore, this thesis evaluated the usefulness of three metabolic markers in source attribution, resolved a Campylobacter outbreak using whole-genome sequence and characterized the dynamics and epidemiology of C. jejuni in Finnish chickens and barnacle geese. First, the possible host association of three metabolic markers, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and the genes of secretory L-asparaginase and fucose permease, was investigated by examining their distribution among isolates collected from a variety of reservoirs and human patients, and by assessing their association with C. jejuni lineages as expressed by multilocus sequence typing. According to our results, the presence and absence of these three traits were linked to the lineages, and no evidence for host association independently of population structure was found. Therefore, these metabolic markers were deemed unsuitable as the sole subtyping scheme in source attribution. Secondly, in an attempt to identify possible new sources for human campylobacteriosis, the character, dynamics, and epidemiology of C. jejuni in barnacle geese and broiler chickens were investigated by multilocus sequence typing and whole-genome sequencing. In line with other studies, the C. jejuni population in barnacle geese was specific to that host, as certain genotypes (ST-702 and ST-1034 CC) were overrepresented in the collection. Furthermore, we proved that the C. jejuni in this wild bird species generally differed from the C. jejuni population found in agricultural animals and C. jejuni infecting humans. Therefore, barnacle geese are most probably not a major source for human campylobacteriosis. Tracing zoonotic pathogens from humans to the source of infection using whole-genome sequencing is a hot topic in the research community. To provide knowledge on how to utilize whole-genome data to profit future real-time investigations of Campylobacter outbreaks, next generation sequencing was used to reinvestigate a waterborne C. jejuni outbreak. Our results revealed that the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis performed in the original outbreak investigation overestimated the clonal relationship between some of the apparently related strains. Through the reanalysis, it became clear that the outbreak was caused by at least two different strains, or an unrelated, sporadic human case was mistakenly classified as part of the outbreak. Whole-genome sequence was therefore needed to infer the correct epidemiology of the studied human infections. To increase the knowledge on C. jejuni in a well-established reservoir, we characterized nearly 90% of all C. jejuni-positive chicken flocks by multilocus sequence typing and linked this information to the isolates metadata, such as farm and collection time-points. We found that the C. jejuni population on Finnish chicken farms was dominated by one genotype (ST-45 CC). Furthermore, our statistical analysis showed that slaughterhouse and year of collection affected the C. jejuni population in chickens mildly, while season influenced the presence of only one genotype (ST-45). Furthermore, the chicken farms were sporadically and infrequently colonized by C. jejuni, as is typical when no persistent colonization source is present on the farms. This thesis utilized an array of subtyping methods on both long- and short-time scales. The results highlight that more traditional methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, still have their use in the current genomic era, and stress the usefulness of multilocus sequence typing as a preliminary screening tool to determine the population structure in the C. jejuni collection being investigated. However, we are convinced that whole-genome sequencing will be the subtyping scheme of choice in the near future, as it provides the full resistome, toxiome and virulome concurrently with the genotyping depth of need in a single operation.  
  • Viholainen, Aila (Viholainen, Aila, 2015)
    My dissertation research concentrates on medieval Western Christian pictorial material presented in religious contexts. The common perspective of the different articles included in my research is make to believe/faire croire : the ways in which pictorial materials in medieval times persuaded, enticed and instructed viewers. My study is characterized by a rhetorical approach that focuses especially on the visuality of medieval images and its analysis. I participate in the study of the past. I see the past that I study as an alien entity located in its own historical context. I am looking for answers from a vantage point that feels strange from the position of the contemporary re-searcher. Questions that arise from consideration of this reveal a gap between the researcher s understanding of today and how things were under-stood in medieval times, a gap which motivates this research. In the first two articles of my work, the medieval world of imagery is perceived as a phenomenon on an abstract level. Here I study and evaluate discussions and studies that have been done in medieval times and subsequently: conceptually, theoretically and methodologically. In the latter two articles, the abstract phenomenon becomes concrete and the focus of analysis is actual pictorial material selected from the medieval world of imagery found in the Holy Cross Church of Hattula. In these articles, the mermaid motif functions as an object of analysis. Imagining is an important practice in the context of medieval art and religion, and it is presented in my work as a supporting theme. First, imagination has operated in the background of my study as a guiding frame of interpretation, as the researcher s own resource. In this case, as Markku Hyrkkänen describes it, imagination can be thought of as an imagining of possible contexts. Second, imagination has worked as a concrete conceptual tool: as Benedict Anderson's imagined communities and later as Barbara Newman's imaginative theology. Third, it is also a medieval concept (imaginatio), the primary task of which was to determine truth. Thus, imagination was a multi-leveled and many-faceted cognitive skill. I locate my research, as well as international studies that I use for dialogue, in a broader humanistic tradition and the research trends of the last decades. Used as the starting point are critical evaluations of previous studies in art history, the study of visual culture and medieval art history over the last decades. I also connect my work to the latest Finnish studies on medieval pictorial material, as well as to the latest research discussions in my own field of religious studies. These findings are definitively presented in the compilation.