Adipose tissue NAD(+)-homeostasis, sirtuins and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases - important players in mitochondrial metabolism and metabolic health

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Jokinen , R , Pirnes-Karhu , S , Pietilainen , K H & Pirinen , E 2017 , ' Adipose tissue NAD(+)-homeostasis, sirtuins and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases - important players in mitochondrial metabolism and metabolic health ' , Redox biology , vol. 12 , pp. 246-263 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2017.02.011

Title: Adipose tissue NAD(+)-homeostasis, sirtuins and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases - important players in mitochondrial metabolism and metabolic health
Author: Jokinen, Riikka; Pirnes-Karhu, Sini; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Pirinen, Eija
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Research Programs Unit
University of Helsinki, Research Programs Unit
University of Helsinki, Clinicum
University of Helsinki, Research Programs Unit
Date: 2017-08
Language: eng
Number of pages: 18
Belongs to series: Redox biology
ISSN: 2213-2317
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/199203
Abstract: Obesity, a chronic state of energy overload, is characterized by adipose tissue dysfunction that is considered to be the major driver for obesity associated metabolic complications. The reasons for adipose tissue dysfunction are incompletely understood, but one potential contributing factor is adipose tissue mitochondrial dysfunction. Derangements of adipose tissue mitochondrial biogenesis and pathways associate with obesity and metabolic diseases. Mitochondria are central organelles in energy metabolism through their role in energy derivation through catabolic oxidative reactions. The mitochondrial processes are dependent on the proper NAD(+)/NADH redox balance and NAD+ is essential for reactions catalyzed by the key regulators of mitochondrial metabolism, sirtuins (SIRTs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). Notably, obesity is associated with disturbed adipose tissue NAD(+) homeostasis and the balance of SIRT and PARP activities. In this review we aim to summarize existing literature on the maintenance of intracellular NAD(+) pools and the function of SIRTs and PARPs in adipose tissue during normal and obese conditions, with the purpose of comprehending their potential role in mitochondrial derangements and obesity associated metabolic complications. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that are the root cause of the adipose tissue mitochondrial derangements is crucial for developing new effective strategies to reverse obesity associated metabolic complications.
Subject: Obesity
Mitochondria
Adipose tissue
Sirtuins
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases
NAD(+)
HIGH-FAT DIET
MEDIATED NAD(+) BIOSYNTHESIS
LOW SIRT1 EXPRESSION
PPAR-GAMMA ACTIVITY
INSULIN SENSITIVITY
BROWN FAT
CALORIE RESTRICTION
INDUCED OBESITY
NICOTINAMIDE MONONUCLEOTIDE
ENERGY-EXPENDITURE
3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
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