Learning for the Legal Profession : Swedish Jurists' Study Journeys ca. 1630-1800

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http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-51-3852-1
Title: Learning for the Legal Profession : Swedish Jurists' Study Journeys ca. 1630-1800
Author: Vasara-Aaltonen, Marianne
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Faculty of Law
Thesis level: Doctoral dissertation (monograph)
Abstract: This research examines the studies of Swedish jurists abroad from ca. 1630 to 1800. The focus is on students of the Academy of Turku with the help of its online database of matriculation records, which also contains biographical information on the students. Thus it has been possible to search among the students for those future jurists who had also studied at foreign universities. The research period covers a good century-and-a-half during which Sweden underwent many profound political and societal changes. The study journeys of the jurists are put into context with these developments. The main research questions are: 1) When were studies abroad most popular and what changes occurred over the period? 2) At which foreign universities did these students enrol? 3) What kind of careers did these men have? 4) Why did aspiring Swedish jurists travel abroad to study? 5) Why did the jurists’ studies abroad change over time? 6) What do these developments reveal about the Swedish legal profession? The study shows that the most popular foreign universities among these Swedish students were the Dutch University of Leiden and the German universities of Rostock, Jena, Halle, and Greifswald. Travels abroad were most common around the middle of the seventeenth century but slowly began to decline in the second half of the century. By the middle of the eighteenth century, these journeys had almost completely stopped. Over half of the students going to Leiden were of noble origin, whereas students at the German universities came from a wider variety of backgrounds. Furthermore, the study illustrates how future jurists did not necessarily study (only) law, but could opt for a variety of subjects. This was especially the case for the noble students. Most of the students held positions within the judiciary during their careers. Especially at the beginning of the research period these careers were often combined with other posts in the civil administration. During the seventeenth century many of the students, especially those who had studied in Leiden, ended up working at courts of appeal, but this was no longer the case after the turn of the eighteenth century. Careers in town judiciaries could be found carrying on longer into the eighteenth century. The rush of Swedish students to foreign universities in the first half of the seventeenth century was linked to the growing administration and especially the founding of the courts of appeal. A great need arose for trained officials, but domestic universities could not yet fulfil that need. The role of the higher nobility was crucial for the development of jurists’ studies abroad in the seventeenth century. Tradition, confessional questions, and political relations affected the choice of university for those travelling abroad. Especially around the middle of the seventeenth century, networks and patronage also played an important part in these study journeys. The turn in the popularity of studies abroad in the seventeenth century is connected to the shift in the position of the higher nobility. The lessening of jurists’ studies abroad in the eighteenth century can be seen in context with paths of advancement within the Swedish administration becoming more regulated and the legal sphere becoming more national. These circumstances made studies abroad less appealing than they had been during the previous century. The decrease was also part of a general decrease in European student migration.Väitöstutkimus käsittelee ruotsalaisten lakimiesten opintoja ulkomailla vuosien 1630 ja 1800 välillä. Aihetta lähestytään tarkastelemalla niitä Turun Akatemiassa opiskelleita tulevia lakimiehiä, jotka jossain vaiheessa opintojaan suuntasivat ulkomaisiin yliopistoihin. Tärkeimmät selvitettävät kysymykset ovat: Milloin ulkomaanopinnot olivat suosituimmillaan ja mitä muutoksia niissä tapahtui? Missä ulkomaisissa yliopistoissa tulevat lakimiehet opiskelivat? Millaiset urapolut heillä oli? Miksi tulevat lakimiehet matkustivat ulkomaille opiskelemaan? Miksi ulkomaanopinnoissa tapahtui muutoksia ajan mittaan? Mitä tutkimustulokset kertovat ruotsalaisen lakimieskunnan kehityksestä? Tutkimus osoittaa, että lakimiesten ulkomaiset opinnot olivat suosituimpia 1600-luvun puolivälin molemmin puolin, alkoivat hiljalleen vähentyä vuosisadan lopulta lähtien ja lakkasivat lähes kokonaan 1700-luvun puolivälin jälkeen. Valtaosa matkoista kohdistui hollantilaisiin ja saksalaisiin yliopistoihin. Yliopistojen valikoitumiseen vaikutti niin poliittisia, kulttuurisia, opillisia kuin uskonnollisiakin syitä. Aatelisten opiskelijoiden osuus korostui 1630- ja 1640-luvuilla. Syynä ulkomaisten opintojen suurelle suosiolle 1600-luvun alkupuolella olivat hallinnon ja oikeuslaitoksen uudistamispyrkimykset, etenkin hovioikeuksien perustaminen. Oikeushallinto tarvitsi päteviä työntekijöitä, mutta kotimaiset yliopistot eivät vielä kyenneet vastaamaan tähän tarpeeseen. Ulkomaisten opintojen vähenemiseen 1700-luvulla puolestaan vaikuttivat useat seikat. Ylhäisaatelin asema oli muuttunut, kotimaisten yliopistojen taso oli noussut, hallinnossa etenemisessä painotettiin enemmän työkokemuksen merkitystä kuin pitkiä opintoja, ja kansallinen oikeus oli tullut yhä tärkeämmäksi. Muutokset ulkomaisissa opinnoissa eivät olleet kuitenkaan suoraviivaisia, ja tutkimus osoittaa eroja muun muassa niiden lakimiesten välillä, jotka päätyivät tuomareiksi hovioikeuksiin ja niiden, jotka päätyivät kaupunkien tuomioistuimiin.
URI: URN:ISBN:978-951-51-3852-1
http://hdl.handle.net/10138/228433
Date: 2017-12-01
Subject:
Rights: This publication is copyrighted. You may download, display and print it for Your own personal use. Commercial use is prohibited.


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