Geometric morphometrics reveals shifts in flower shape symmetry and size following gene knockdown of CYCLOIDEA and ANTHOCYANIDIN SYNTHASE

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http://hdl.handle.net/10138/228605

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BMC Plant Biology. 2017 Nov 17;17(1):205

Title: Geometric morphometrics reveals shifts in flower shape symmetry and size following gene knockdown of CYCLOIDEA and ANTHOCYANIDIN SYNTHASE
Author: Berger, Brent A; Ricigliano, Vincent A; Savriama, Yoland; Lim, Aedric; Thompson, Veronica; Howarth, Dianella G
Publisher: BioMed Central
Date: 2017-11-17
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/228605
Abstract: Abstract Background While floral symmetry has traditionally been assessed qualitatively, recent advances in geometric morphometrics have opened up new avenues to specifically quantify flower shape and size using robust multivariate statistical methods. In this study, we examine, for the first time, the ability of geometric morphometrics to detect morphological differences in floral dorsoventral asymmetry following virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Using Fedia graciliflora Fisch. & Meyer (Valerianaceae) as a model, corolla shape of untreated flowers was compared using canonical variate analysis to knockdown phenotypes of CYCLOIDEA2A (FgCYC2A), ANTHOCYANIDIN SYNTHASE (FgANS), and empty vector controls. Results Untreated flowers and all VIGS treatments were morphologically distinct from each other, suggesting that VIGS may cause subtle shifts in floral shape. Knockdowns of FgCYC2A were the most dramatic, affecting the position of dorsal petals in relation to lateral petals, thereby resulting in more actinomorphic-like flowers. Additionally, FgANS knockdowns developed larger flowers with wider corolla tube openings. Conclusions These results provide a method to quantify the role that specific genes play in the developmental pathway affecting the dorsoventral axis of symmetry in zygomorphic flowers. Additionally, they suggest that ANS may have an unintended effect on floral size and shape.
Subject: Geometric morphometrics
Virus-induced gene silencing
CYCLOIDEA
Fedia graciliflora
Floral symmetry
ANTHOCYANIDIN SYNTHASE


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