Innovative methods for measuring and improving the bearing capacity of forest roads

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http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-651-592-5
Title: Innovative methods for measuring and improving the bearing capacity of forest roads
Author: Kaakkurivaara, Tomi
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Forest Sciences
Thesis level: Doctoral dissertation (article-based)
Belongs to series: Dissertationes Forestales - URN:ISSN:1795-7389
Abstract: The aim of this thesis was to investigate the use of portable bearing capacity measurement devices and alternative fly ash structures to improve forest road quality and rehabilitation practices. So far, few tools have proved suitable for practical evaluation of forest road trafficability. Bearing capacity is the main component of trafficability and bearing capacity measurements are rarely conducted on forest roads. Replacing subjective criteria with objective measurement methods is the first step towards avoiding rutting damages as well as improving rehabilitation decisions. Three bearing capacity measuring devices were tested for predicting forest road rutting in the context of bearing capacity improvements with fly ash structures. Modulus of elasticity (E-modulus) was used as the measurement unit. E-modulus was used to quantify road stiffness as measured by two portable measurement devices and one trailer-mounted device. A light falling weight deflectometer (LFWD) and a dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) were used to challenge the conventional falling weight deflectometer (FWD). Test sections were located on forest roads with both mineral and peat subgrades. The comparison showed logical correlations between the measured E-modulus values, and reliable regression models are presented for the differences between measuring devices. In most cases DCP and LFWD can be utilized on forest roads instead of the expensive FWD. The measurement results for the portable devices and the FWD were compared to rutting, as represented by the increases in rut depth per passing truck (mm/pass) measured by mobile laser scanning (MLS). The devices were used to quantify the relationships between the E-modulus and rutting. Rutting threshold values were then based on these relations. A rough rutting susceptibility table was outlined to aid forestry professionals to estimate the rutting damage risk per timber truck on forest roads during periods of thaw-weakening. Growing bioenergy production and consumption has resulted in an increase in the amount of fly ash produced by the forestry sector. At the same time the cost for ash deposition at land-fills has increased considerably. Utilizing fly ash in forest roads is therefore seen as a potentially cost-efficient alternative for improving bearing capacity. The fly ash part of the study investigated therefore road rehabilitation work from both technical and economical perspectives. Four different rehabilitation methods were tested using wood- and peat-based fly ash. The four rehabilitation methods involved two structures mixed with aggregate and two structures with uniform fly ash. The resulting bearing capacity of the rehabilitated road sections was improved compared to the reference sections, especially for the mixed structures. The improvements were verified by statistical comparisons. The study also defined the various work phases of rehabilitation and estimated construction costs based on phase-specific machine productivities. Cost calculation equations were established for earthwork and the transportation of construction materials. The lowest construction costs were calculated for a 250-mm thick uniform layer of fly ash structure, however, a 500-mm thick uniform layer of fly ash provided the lowest total costs when taking into consideration the alternative cost for landfill deposition.Tämän väitöskirjan päätavoitteina oli tutkia kannettavien pudotuspainomittalaitteiden soveltuvuutta metsätien kantavuuden mittaamiseksi ja vertailla tuloksia raskaaseen pudotuspainolaitteeseen, muodostaa erilaitteilla mitattujen kantavuusarvojen pohjalta metsätien urautumista ennustava taulukko ja vertailla neljän erilaisen lentotuhkarakenteen teknistä onnistumista kantavuuden perusteella ja vertailla taloudellista kannattavuutta perinteiseen murskeen käyttöön. Kantavuustieto olisi merkittävä apu metsäammattilaiselle arvioitaessa kelirikkoisen metsätien kulkukelpoisuutta ja vaurioitumisriskiä ja myös metsätien peruskunnostustarpeen arviointiin kesällä. Puu- ja turveperäisen lentotuhkan käyttökohteiden lisääminen vähentäisi kaatopaikalle päätyvän tuhkan määrää, mikä pienentäisi kaatopaikkamaksujen suuruutta ja edistäisi kiertotalouden periaatteita. Molemmat kannettavat pudotuspainolaitteet (LFWD ja DCP) osoittautuivat tulostensa puolesta vertailukelpoisiksi raskaaseen pudotuspainolaitteeseen verrattuna (FWD) tietyin rajoituksin kevät- ja kesäolosuhteissa. Kaikkien kolmen laitteen kelirikkomittausten osalta löydettiin myös raja-arvot, joiden alittaminen aiheuttaa voimakasta urautumista metsätiellä raskaan ajoneuvon seurauksena. Bioperäisen lentotuhkan hyödyt metsätien kunnostamisessa olivat ilmeiset, kantavuus nousi keväällä samalle tasolle kuin kesämittauksessa ennen kunnostamista. Lentotuhka rakenteen korkeampi hinta puolestaan kompensoitui vähentyneinä kaatopaikkamaksuina.
URI: URN:ISBN:978-951-651-592-5
http://hdl.handle.net/10138/234209
Date: 2018-05-09
Subject:
Rights: This publication is copyrighted. You may download, display and print it for Your own personal use. Commercial use is prohibited.


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