ALPINE SPORTS INJURIES IN FINLAND: A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF SKIING AND SNOWBOARDING INJURIES

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http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-51-4158-3
Title: ALPINE SPORTS INJURIES IN FINLAND: A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF SKIING AND SNOWBOARDING INJURIES
Author: Stenroos, Antti
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Faculty of Medicine, Ortopedian ja traumatologia
Thesis level: Doctoral dissertation (article-based)
Abstract: The equipment and body mechanics in skiing and snowboarding are different, exposing participants to a distinctive array of risks and injuries. Recreational skiing and snowboarding have gone through major changes during the last decade due to rising popularity of terrain parks and evolution of equipment. The modern skis provide the opportunity to ski faster with less skill than with traditional skis. The aim of this thesis was to provide information on the incidences and the nature and mechanisms of injury, in both recreational and competitive alpine skiing and snowboarding in Finland. Study I covered six seasons (2006–2012), assessing injured recreational alpine ski¬ers and snowboarders at the Levi Ski Resort Ltd., Finland. The data was collected from the ski resort’s files which registers ski lift rides, injuries and conditions leading to injury on a standardized form of all injured persons. In study II, data of injuries in Finnish ski racers during the seasons of 2009 and 2010 were retrospectively studied. The data collection (patient characteristics, mechanism and type of injury, the length of recovery and a subjective outcome at six months post injury) was conducted with a standardized written questionnaire. For study III, all patients with tibial fracture in recreational skiing or snowboarding were reviewed in four hospitals between years 2006–2012. The fracture morphology and injury mechanism were analysed to compare fracture patterns between these two sports. Study IV focused on traumatic brain injuries. All patients referred to the Trauma Unit of Helsinki University Hospital with acute head injury due to skiing or snowboarding between years 2006 and 2015 were reviewed. The overall injury incidence in recreational skiing and snowboarding in study I was 0.98 injuries per 10 000 lift runs. Snowboarders were more likely to sustain upper extremity injuries when compared to skiers (59% vs. 34% p<0.05) whereas skiers were more likely to injure lower extremity (43% vs. 17%, p<0.05). Most of the accidents (n=2062, 72%) took place on slopes, but injuries in terrain parks were more likely to be more serious injuries (22%, vs. 9%, p< 0.05). In study II, the lower extremity was the most commonly injured body area (n=39, 64%) in ski racing. Knee injury was the most common injury (n=21, 34%), followed by tibial fracture (n=16, 26%). The most common tibia fracture type in recreational skiers (study III) was spiral shaft fracture (n=180, 53%), followed by tibial plateau fractures (n=62, 18%). Where as among snowboarders tibial plateau fractures were most common (n=7, 23%). In study IV, the majority (n=51, 70%) of head injuries were concussions without injury findings in computed tomography. Seventeen patients (24%) had serious to critical injuries graded by Abbreviated Injury Scale. Patients who fell while jumping or trying to balance on handrails in urban environment were more likely to be admitted to ICU than patients injured on skiing slopes (32% vs. 10%, p<0.05). In conclusion, the injury incidence in recreational skiing and snowboarding was lower than in previous studies conducted in the United States and continental Europe, but similar to studies from other Nordic countries. Among ski racers the high number of lower leg fractures is alarming when comparing to previous studies. Additionally, the number of recreational skiers’ tibia plateau fractures was higher than in earlier studies conducted before the era of modern skies. Head injuries occurring in small hills and in urban environments can be seriousAlppihiihto on yksi suosituimmista talviurheilulajeista maailmassa. Vuosittain yli miljoona suomalaista käy laskettelemassa. Aiemmista epidemiologisista tutkimuksista voidaan todeta alppihiihtoon ja lumilautauluun liittyvän suuri riski loukkaantua.Yleisesti voidaan todeta, että onnettomuuksien aiheuttamat vammat vaihtelevat lievistä vakaviin, jopa pysyvää ruumiillista haittaa aiheuttaviin vammoihin tai niiden jälkitiloihin. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli kartoittaa sekä harrastus että kilpa-alppihiihdossa ja lumilautailussa tapahtuvien loukkaantumisten määrää, tyyppiä ja vammamekanismeja. Suomessa tapahtuu noin yksi (0.98) loukkaantuminen 10 000 hissinousua kohden, laskettelijoilla yleisin vamma on polven nilvesidevamma, kun taas lumilautailijoilla yleisin vamma on ranne vamma. Suurin osa vammoista johtuu kaatumisesta rinne alueella, mutta kaatumiset hyppyreissä on yleensä vakavampia. Kilpa-alppihiihtäjillä yleisin vamma on polven nivelsidevamma, mutta säären alueen murtumat olivat lähes yhtä yleisiä. Alppihiihtäjillä yleisin sääri murtuma tyyppi on varren kierteinen murtuma ja toiseksi yleisin murtumatyyppi on polven nivelpinnan murtumat. Lumilautailijoilla polven nivel pinnan murtumat olivat yleisin murtuma tyyppi. Suurin osa päävammoista on aivotärähdyksiä, mutta noin neljännes päävammoista on vakavia tai kriittisiä. Vammojen kokonaismäärä on Suomessa alhaisempi kuin Keski-Euroopassa tai Pohjois-Amerikassa, mutta vastaava kuin muissa Pohjoismaissa. Sääri murtumien suuri määrä kilpa-alppihiihtäjillä on huolestuttavan suuri ja määrä on suurempi kuin aikaisemmissa tutkimuksissa. Lisäksi polvi nivelen sisäisten murtumien määrä on suurempi on aikaisemmin julkaistuissa tutkimuksissa, jotka ovat julkaistu ennen "tiimalasi" suksen yleistymistä. Matalissa pienissä rinteissä ja kaupunki alueilla tapahtuvat pään vammat voivat olla vakavia ja henkeä uhkaavia.
URI: URN:ISBN:978-951-51-4158-3
http://hdl.handle.net/10138/235189
Date: 2018-06-08
Subject:
Rights: This publication is copyrighted. You may download, display and print it for Your own personal use. Commercial use is prohibited.


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