The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on inflammatory markers in blood and brain and on behavior in individually-housed pigs

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Nordgreen , J , Munsterhjelm , C , Aae , F , Popova , A , Boysen , P , Ranheim , B , Heinonen , M , Raszplewicz , J , Piepponen , P , Lervik , A , Valros , A & Janczak , A M 2018 , ' The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on inflammatory markers in blood and brain and on behavior in individually-housed pigs ' , Physiology & Behavior , vol. 195 , pp. 98-111 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.07.013

Title: The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on inflammatory markers in blood and brain and on behavior in individually-housed pigs
Author: Nordgreen, Janicke; Munsterhjelm, Camilla; Aae, Frida; Popova, Anastasija; Boysen, Preben; Ranheim, Birgit; Heinonen, Mari; Raszplewicz, Joanna; Piepponen, Petteri; Lervik, Andreas; Valros, Anna; Janczak, Andrew M.
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Departments of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
University of Helsinki, Mari Heinonen / Principal Investigator
University of Helsinki, Drug Research Program
University of Helsinki, Doctoral Programme in Clinical Veterinary Medicine
Date: 2018-10-15
Language: eng
Number of pages: 14
Belongs to series: Physiology & Behavior
ISSN: 0031-9384
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/238889
Abstract: Most of us have experienced deterioration of mood while ill. In humans, immune activation is associated with lethargy and social withdrawal, irritability and aggression; changes in social motivation could, in theory, lead to less functional interactions. This might also be the case for animals housed in close confinement. Tail biting in pigs is an example of damaging social behavior, and sickness is thought to be a risk factor for tail biting outbreaks. One possible mechanism whereby sickness may influence behavior is through cytokines. To identify possible mediators between immune activation and behavioral change, we injected 16 gilts with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; O111:B4; 1.5 mu g kg(-1) IV through a permanent catheter). In LPS-treated pigs, a significant increase in cortisol, TNF-alpha, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, and IL-8 was observed alongside decreased activity within the first 6 h after the injection. CRP was elevated at 12 and 24 h after injection, and food intake was reduced for the first 24 h after injection. Three days post-injection, LPS pigs had lower levels of noradrenaline in their hypothalamus, hippocampus and frontal cortex compared to saline-injected pigs. Pigs injected with LPS also had higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-gamma in their frontal cortex compared to saline-injected pigs. Thus, a low dose of LPS can induce changes in brain cytokine levels and neurotransmitter levels that persist after inflammatory and stress markers in the periphery have returned to baseline levels.
Subject: 413 Veterinary science
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Pig Sickness behavior Inflammation Tail biting Noradrenaline
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
Pig
Sickness behavior
Inflammation
Tail biting
Noradrenaline
SPRAY-DRIED PLASMA
INTERFERON-ALPHA THERAPY
PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS
ACUTE-PHASE RESPONSE
C-REACTIVE PROTEIN
MONOCYTE SUBSETS
EXPERIMENTAL ENDOTOXEMIA
SICKNESS BEHAVIOR
DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS
BACTERIAL-ENDOTOXIN
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