Vitamin D Fortification of Fluid Milk Products and Their Contribution to Vitamin D Intake and Vitamin D Status in Observational Studies—A Review

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Itkonen , S T , Erkkola , M & Lamberg-Allardt , C J E 2018 , ' Vitamin D Fortification of Fluid Milk Products and Their Contribution to Vitamin D Intake and Vitamin D Status in Observational Studies—A Review ' , Nutrients , vol. 10 , no. 8 , 1054 . https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081054

Title: Vitamin D Fortification of Fluid Milk Products and Their Contribution to Vitamin D Intake and Vitamin D Status in Observational Studies—A Review
Author: Itkonen, Suvi T.; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J. E.
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Department of Food and Nutrition
University of Helsinki, Department of Food and Nutrition
University of Helsinki, Department of Food and Nutrition
Date: 2018-08-09
Language: eng
Number of pages: 19
Belongs to series: Nutrients
ISSN: 2072-6643
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/298890
Abstract: Fluid milk products are systematically, either mandatorily or voluntarily, fortified with vitamin D in some countries but their overall contribution to vitamin D intake and status worldwide is not fully understood. We searched the PubMed database to evaluate the contribution of vitamin D-fortified fluid milk products (regular milk and fermented products) to vitamin D intake and serum or plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in observational studies during 1993-2017. Twenty studies provided data on 25(OH)D status (n = 19,744), and 22 provided data on vitamin D intake (n = 99,023). Studies showed positive associations between the consumption of vitamin D-fortified milk and 25(OH)D status in different population groups. In countries with a national vitamin D fortification policy covering various fluid milk products (Finland, Canada, United States), milk products contributed 28-63% to vitamin D intake, while in countries without a fortification policy, or when the fortification covered only some dairy products (Sweden, Norway), the contribution was much lower or negligible. To conclude, based on the reviewed observational studies, vitamin D-fortified fluid milk products contribute to vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D status. However, their impact on vitamin D intake at the population level depends on whether vitamin D fortification is systematic and policy-based.
Subject: dairy
vitamin D
vitamin D-fortified milk
vitamin D intake
vitamin D fortification
25-hydroxyvitamin D
D FOOD FORTIFICATION
25-HYDROXYVITAMIN D
PRESCHOOL-CHILDREN
D DEFICIENCY
FORTIFIED FOODS
UNITED-STATES
SERUM
CALCIUM
POPULATION
WOMEN
416 Food Science
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