Genetic resistance determinants to fusidic acid and chlorhexidine in variably susceptible staphylococci from dogs

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BMC Microbiology. 2019 Apr 25;19(1):81

Title: Genetic resistance determinants to fusidic acid and chlorhexidine in variably susceptible staphylococci from dogs
Author: Frosini, S-M; Bond, R.; Rantala, M.; Grönthal, T.; Rankin, S. C; O’Shea, K.; Timofte, D.; Schmidt, V.; Lindsay, J.; Loeffler, A.
Publisher: BioMed Central
Date: 2019-04-25
Language: en
Abstract: Abstract Background Concern exists that frequent use of topically-applied fusidic acid (FA) and chlorhexidine (CHX) for canine pyoderma is driving clinically relevant resistance, despite rare description of FA and CHX genetic resistance determinants in canine-derived staphylococci. This study aimed to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and investigate presence of putative resistance determinants for FA and CHX in canine-derived methicillin-resistant (MR) and -susceptible (MS) staphylococci. Plasmid-mediated resistance genes (fusB, fusC, fusD, qacA/B, smr; PCR) and MICs (agar dilution) of FA and CHX were investigated in 578 staphylococci (50 MR S. aureus [SA], 50 MSSA, 259 MR S. pseudintermedius [SP], 219 MSSP) from Finland, U.S.A., North (NUK) and South-East U.K. (SEUK) and Germany. In all isolates with FA MIC ≥64 mg/L (n = 27) fusA and fusE were amplified and sequenced. Results FA resistance determinants (fusA mutations n = 24, fusB n = 2, fusC n = 36) were found in isolates from all countries bar U.S.A. and correlated with higher MICs (≥1 mg/L), although 4 SP isolates had MICs of 0.06 mg/L despite carrying fusC. CHX MICs did not correlate with qacA/B (n = 2) and smr (n = 5), which were found in SEUK SA, and SP from NUK and U.S.A. Conclusions Increased FA MICs were frequently associated with fusA mutations and fusC, and this is the first account of fusB in SP. Despite novel description of qacA/B in SP, gene presence did not correlate with CHX MIC. Selection pressure from clinical use might increase prevalence of these genetic determinants, but clinical significance remains uncertain in relation to high skin concentrations achieved by topical therapy.
Subject: Staphylococci
Fusidic acid

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