The origin of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in cardiac surgery

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http://hdl.handle.net/10138/302156

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BMC Nephrology. 2019 May 22;20(1):182

Title: The origin of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in cardiac surgery
Author: Passov, Arie; Petäjä, Liisa; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Salminen, Ulla-Stina; Suojaranta, Raili; Vento, Antti; Andersson, Sture; Pettilä, Ville; Schramko, Alexey; Pesonen, Eero
Publisher: BioMed Central
Date: 2019-05-22
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/302156
Abstract: Abstract Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common after heart surgery. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is produced in injured kidney. NGAL has been used as an early plasma biomarker for AKI in patients undergoing heart surgery. Neutrophils contain all isoforms (25-kDa, 45-kDa and 145-kDa) but the kidney produces almost exclusively the 25-kDa isoform of NGAL. We investigated first, whether there is association between NGAL and neutrophil activation, and second whether activated neutrophils are a significant source of circulating NGAL in plasma in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods Two separate patient cohorts were studied: 1) the “kinetic cohort” (n = 29) and 2) the “FINNAKI cohort” (n = 306). As NGAL is strictly co-localized with lactoferrin in neutrophils, NGAL and lactoferrin were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all patients. In sixty-one patients of the “FINNAKI cohort” Western blot was used to separate NGAL isoforms according to their molecular size. Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis H, Pearson’s and Spearman’s tests were used as appropriate. Results There was strong intraoperative association between NGAL and lactoferrin at all four time-points in the “kinetic cohort”. In the “FINNAKI cohort”, NGAL and lactoferrin concentrations correlated preoperatively (R = 0.59, p < 0.001) and at admission to the intensive care unit (R = 0.69, p < 0.001). At admission to intensive care unit, concentrations of NGAL and lactoferrin were higher in AKI than in non-AKI patients (NGAL: p < 0.001; lactoferrin: p < 0.029). In Western blot analyses, neutrophil specific 45-kDa isoform (median 41% [IQR 33.3–53.1]) and mostly neutrophil derived 145-kDa isoform (median 53.5% [IQR 44.0–64.9%]) together represented over 90% of total NGAL in plasma. Potentially kidney derived NGAL isoform (25-kDa) accounted for only 0.9% (IQR 0.3 – 3.0%) of total NGAL in plasma. There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of NGAL isomers between AKI and non-AKI patients. Conclusions Plasma NGAL during cardiac surgery is associated with neutrophil activation. Based on molecular size, the majority of circulating NGAL is derived from neutrophils. Neutrophil activation is a confounding factor when interpreting increased plasma NGAL in cardiac surgery.
Subject: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)
Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury
Acute kidney injury
Neutrophil activation
Biomarkers
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