Effects of Neurotrophic Factors in Glial Cells in the Central Nervous System : Expression and Properties in Neurodegeneration and Injury

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Poyhonen , S , Er , S , Domanskyi , A & Airavaara , M 2019 , ' Effects of Neurotrophic Factors in Glial Cells in the Central Nervous System : Expression and Properties in Neurodegeneration and Injury ' , Frontiers in Physiology , vol. 10 , 486 . https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00486

Title: Effects of Neurotrophic Factors in Glial Cells in the Central Nervous System : Expression and Properties in Neurodegeneration and Injury
Author: Poyhonen, Suvi; Er, Safak; Domanskyi, Andrii; Airavaara, Mikko
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Institute of Biotechnology
University of Helsinki, Institute of Biotechnology
University of Helsinki, Institute of Biotechnology
University of Helsinki, Neuroscience Center
Date: 2019-04-26
Language: eng
Number of pages: 20
Belongs to series: Frontiers in Physiology
ISSN: 1664-042X
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/302644
Abstract: Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia are abundant cell types found in the central nervous system and have been shown to play crucial roles in regulating both normal and disease states. An increasing amount of evidence points to the critical importance of glia in mediating neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases (AD, PD), and in ischemic stroke, where microglia are involved in initial tissue clearance, and astrocytes in the subsequent formation of a glial scar. The importance of these cells for neuronal survival has previously been studied in co-culture experiments and the search for neurotrophic factors (NTFs) initiated after finding that the addition of conditioned media from astrocyte cultures could support the survival of primary neurons in vitro. This led to the discovery of the potent dopamine neurotrophic factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In this review, we focus on the relationship between glia and NTFs including neurotrophins, GDNF-family ligands, CNTF family, and CDNF/MANF-family proteins. We describe their expression in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and their precursors (NG2-positive cells, OPCs), and microglia during development and in the adult brain. Furthermore, we review existing data on the glial phenotypes of NTF knockout mice and follow NTF expression patterns and their effects on glia in disease models such as AD, PD, stroke, and retinal degeneration.
Subject: CDNF
MANF
GDNF
BDNF
CNTF
CNTF-RECEPTOR-ALPHA
LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR
SPINAL-CORD-INJURY
OLIGODENDROCYTE PRECURSOR CELLS
NIGRAL DOPAMINERGIC-NEURONS
GROWTH-FACTOR EXPRESSION
FOCAL CEREBRAL-ISCHEMIA
GENE-EXPRESSION
DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION
SYNAPSE FORMATION
1184 Genetics, developmental biology, physiology
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