Chronic diseases and social risk factors in relation to specific symptoms of depression : Evidence from the U.S. national health and nutrition examination surveys

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Jokela , M , García-Velázquez , R , Airaksinen , J , Gluschkoff , K , Kivimäki , M & Rosenström , T 2019 , ' Chronic diseases and social risk factors in relation to specific symptoms of depression : Evidence from the U.S. national health and nutrition examination surveys ' , Journal of Affective Disorders , vol. 251 , pp. 242-247 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.03.074

Title: Chronic diseases and social risk factors in relation to specific symptoms of depression : Evidence from the U.S. national health and nutrition examination surveys
Author: Jokela, Markus; García-Velázquez, Regina; Airaksinen, Jaakko; Gluschkoff, Kia; Kivimäki, Mika; Rosenström, Tom
Contributor organization: Department of Psychology and Logopedics
University Management
Department of Public Health
Staff Services
Date: 2019-05-15
Language: eng
Number of pages: 6
Belongs to series: Journal of Affective Disorders
ISSN: 0165-0327
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.03.074
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/313508
Abstract: Background: Depression is a heterogeneous mental disorder with multiple symptoms, but only few studies have examined whether associations of risk factors with depression are symptom-specific. We examined whether chronic diseases and social risk factors (poverty, divorce, and perceived lack of emotional support) are differently associated with somatic and cognitive/affective symptoms of depression. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were based on individual-level data from the 31,191 participants of six cross-sectional U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) carried out between 2005 and 2016. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Information on chronic diseases and social risk factors was self-reported by participants. Results: After adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and all the of other symptoms besides the outcome symptom, higher number of chronic diseases was independently related to fatigue, psychomotor retardation/agitation, and sleep problems in a dose-response pattern (range of odds ratios: 1.21 to 2.59). Except for concentration problems, social risk factors were associated with almost all of the cognitive/affective symptoms (range of odds ratios: 1.02 to 2.09) but only sporadically with somatic symptoms. Limitations: All measures were self-reported by the participants, which may have introduced bias to the associations. Cross-sectional data did not allow us to study temporal dynamics. Conclusions: Specific symptoms of depression may be useful in characterizing the heterogeneous etiology of depression with respect to somatic versus social risk factors.
Subject: ASSOCIATION
C-REACTIVE PROTEIN
Depressive symptoms
Disease
Heterogeneity
INFLAMMATION
INVENTORY-II
LIFE EVENTS
MAJOR DEPRESSION
Network
OVERLAP
Risk factors
SEVERITY
SUPPORT
Symptomics
515 Psychology
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by_nc_nd
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: acceptedVersion


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