Non-locality of Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock : injection of thermal protons in a hybrid-Vlasov simulation

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Battarbee , M , Ganse , U , Pfau-Kempf , Y , Turc , L , Brito , T , Grandin , M , Koskela , T & Palmroth , M 2020 , ' Non-locality of Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock : injection of thermal protons in a hybrid-Vlasov simulation ' , Annales Geophysicae , vol. 38 , no. 3 , pp. 625-643 . https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-38-625-2020

Title: Non-locality of Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock : injection of thermal protons in a hybrid-Vlasov simulation
Author: Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Turc, Lucile; Brito, Thiago; Grandin, Maxime; Koskela, Tuomas; Palmroth, Minna
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Space Physics Research Group
University of Helsinki, Department of Physics
University of Helsinki, Particle Physics and Astrophysics
University of Helsinki, Space Physics Research Group
University of Helsinki, Department of Physics
University of Helsinki, Particle Physics and Astrophysics
University of Helsinki, Department of Physics
University of Helsinki, Department of Physics
Date: 2020-05-26
Language: eng
Number of pages: 19
Belongs to series: Annales Geophysicae
ISSN: 0992-7689
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/316686
Abstract: We study the interaction of solar wind protons with Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock using a hybrid-Vlasov simulation. We employ the global hybrid model Vlasiator to include effects due to bow shock curvature, tenuous upstream populations, and foreshock waves. We investigate the uncertainty of the position of the quasi-parallel bow shock as a function of several plasma properties and find that regions of non-locality or uncertainty of the shock position form and propagate away from the shock nose. Our results support the notion of upstream structures causing the patchwork reconstruction of the quasi-parallel shock front in a non-uniform manner. We propose a novel method for spacecraft data to be used to analyse this quasi-parallel reformation. We combine our hybrid-Vlasov results with test-particle studies and show that proton energization, which is required for injection, takes place throughout a larger shock transition zone. The energization of particles is found regardless of the instantaneous non-locality of the shock front, in agreement with it taking place over a larger region. Distortion of magnetic fields in front of and at the shock is shown to have a significant effect on proton injection. We additionally show that the density of suprathermal reflected particles upstream of the shock may not be a useful metric for the probability of injection at the shock, as foreshock dynamics and particle trapping appear to have a significant effect on energetic-particle accumulation at a given position in space. Our results have implications for statistical and spacecraft studies of the shock injection problem.
Subject: HOT FLOW ANOMALIES
IONS UPSTREAM
DRIFT ACCELERATION
FORESHOCK
REFLECTION
WAVES
DISTRIBUTIONS
REFORMATION
TRANSIENT
LEAKAGE
115 Astronomy, Space science
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