An Image-Based Real-Time Georeferencing Scheme for a UAV Based on a New Angular Parametrization

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http://hdl.handle.net/10138/320242

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Khoramshahi, E.; Oliveira, R.A.; Koivumäki, N.; Honkavaara, E. An Image-Based Real-Time Georeferencing Scheme for a UAV Based on a New Angular Parametrization. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 3185.

Title: An Image-Based Real-Time Georeferencing Scheme for a UAV Based on a New Angular Parametrization
Author: Khoramshahi, Ehsan; Oliveira, Raquel A.; Koivumäki, Niko; Honkavaara, Eija
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Date: 2020-09-29
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/320242
Abstract: Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) of a monocular projective camera installed on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is a challenging task in photogrammetry, computer vision, and robotics. This paper presents a novel real-time monocular SLAM solution for UAV applications. It is based on two steps: consecutive construction of the UAV path, and adjacent strip connection. Consecutive construction rapidly estimates the UAV path by sequentially connecting incoming images to a network of connected images. A multilevel pyramid matching is proposed for this step that contains a sub-window matching using high-resolution images. The sub-window matching increases the frequency of tie points by propagating locations of matched sub-windows that leads to a list of high-frequency tie points while keeping the execution time relatively low. A sparse bundle block adjustment (BBA) is employed to optimize the initial path by considering nuisance parameters. System calibration parameters with respect to global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and inertial navigation system (INS) are optionally considered in the BBA model for direct georeferencing. Ground control points and checkpoints are optionally included in the model for georeferencing and quality control. Adjacent strip connection is enabled by an overlap analysis to further improve connectivity of local networks. A novel angular parametrization based on spherical rotation coordinate system is presented to address the gimbal lock singularity of BBA. Our results suggest that the proposed scheme is a precise real-time monocular SLAM solution for a UAV.


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