The Third Precise Levelling of Finland

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Title: The Third Precise Levelling of Finland
Author: Saaranen, Veikko; Lehmuskoski, Pekka; Takalo, Mikko; Rouhiainen, Paavo
Publisher: National Land Survey of Finland
Date: 2021
Language: en
Belongs to series: FGI Publications
ISBN: 978-951-48-0266-9
ISSN: 2342-7345
Abstract: The Third Precise Levelling of Finland was performed in 1978–2006 by The Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI). The levelling network consisted 9158 km of levelled lines including 29 closed loops, 13 side lines to the tide gauges and 21 connections to the neighbouring countries. The mean standard error of the Third Levelling, calculated from the closing errors of the levelling loops, is ±0.86 mm/ √km. In this publication, measuring methods, equipment, computation of the observations, and the adjustments are presented. In the appendices, yearly progress of the measuring work, the rod corrections, and the observations are presented. The new height system N2000 is a realization of a European Vertical Reference System (EVRS). It is a normal height system, where the permanent tidal deformation is in a zero tidal system. The observations were reduced to the epoch 2000.0 using the Nordic land uplift model NKG2005LU. The Normaal Amsterdams Peil (NAP) is a datum of the N2000 height system. The fundamental benchmark PP2000 for the adjustment of the Finnish observations is located in Metsähovi and its height is 54.4233 m. This height was determined by using the Finnish version of the Baltic Levelling Ring adjustment. The N2000 adjustment contained the measurements of the Third Levelling of Finland and some observations of Sweden and Norway near the Finnish border in order to ensure the compatibility of the new height systems between the neighbouring countries.
Subject: Finnish precise levelling
N2000 height system

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