Validating Geoid Models with Marine GNSS Measurements, Sea Surface Models, and Additional Gravity Observations in the Gulf of Finland

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Title: Validating Geoid Models with Marine GNSS Measurements, Sea Surface Models, and Additional Gravity Observations in the Gulf of Finland
Author: Saari, Timo; Bilker-Koivula, Mirjam; Koivula, Hannu; Nordman, Maaria; Häkli, Pasi; Lahtinen, Sonja
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Date: 2021
Belongs to series: Marine Geodesy
ISSN: 0149-0419
1521-060X
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/328190
Abstract: Traditionally, geoid models have been validated using GNSS-levelling benchmarks on land only. As such benchmarks cannot be established offshore, marine areas of geoid models must be evaluated in a different way. In this research, we present a marine GNSS/gravity campaign where existing geoid models were validated at sea areas by GNSS measurements in combination with sea surface models. Additionally, a new geoid model, calculated using the newly collected marine gravity data, was validated. The campaign was carried out with the marine geology research catamaran Geomari (operated by the Geological Survey of Finland), which sailed back and forth the eastern part of the Finnish territorial waters of the Gulf of Finland during the early summer of 2018. From the GNSS and sea surface data we were able to obtain geoid heights at sea areas with an accuracy of a few centimetres. When the GNSS derived geoid heights are compared with geoid heights from the geoid models differences between the respective models are seen in the most eastern and southern parts of the campaign area. The new gravity data changed the geoid model heights by up to 15 cm in areas of sparse/non-existing gravity data.
Subject: dynamic topography
marine GNSS
marine gravity
quasi-geoid
tide gauge


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