Impact of pre-mating diet and metabolic state on follicle development and piglet birth weight in sows

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http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-51-7474-1
Title: Impact of pre-mating diet and metabolic state on follicle development and piglet birth weight in sows
Author: Han, Taehee
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences
Doctoral Programme in Clinical Veterinary Medicine
Publisher: Helsingin yliopisto
Date: 2021-09-10
Language: en
Belongs to series: URN:ISSN:2342-317X
URI: http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-51-7474-1
http://hdl.handle.net/10138/333696
Thesis level: Doctoral dissertation (article-based)
Abstract: The objective of this thesis was to modulate the pre-mating metabolic state of young sows by using specific pre-mating diets supplemented with L-carnitine (LC), L-arginine (AR), microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) and sugar beet pulp (SBP). A further objective was to investigate if and how pre-mating metabolic state affects subsequent follicle development and piglet birth weight. Sows received specific supplements to their pre-mating diets during the last week of lactation and weaning-to-oestrus interval (WEI) in both studies. In study I, a total of 56 first- and 20 second-parity sows received either wheat (CON) or wheat plus either MFC, LC or AR at one of two supplementation levels. In study II, 58 first-parity sows received treatment diets supplemented with SBP and MFC compared with commercial diets (CON). For both Study I and II, sows’ body condition and its losses during lactation were assessed. From weaning till ovulation, follicle diameters were repeatedly measured with ultrasound. Pre-prandial blood samples were collected at weaning, at 3 days after weaning and at oestrus for metabolic hormones and metabolites analysis. At subsequent farrowing, sows after their first (N = 41) and second (N = 15) lactation in Study I and 44 sows after their first lactation in Study II were used for investigation of litter characteristics (litter size, piglet birth weight and piglet birth weight variation). Before weaning, the pre-mating diets did not affect average daily feed intake (ADFI) and body condition losses in Study I. In Study II, however, SBP sows had higher backfat (BF) loss during the last week of lactation than MFC sows. Higher creatinine concentration at weaning was observed in SBP sows than in MFC sows. However, the pre-mating diets did not affect insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration, follicle development or litter characteristics at subsequent farrowing in either studies. At weaning, sows with higher plasma IGF-1 had larger follicles. At 3 days after weaning, IGF-1 and serum leptin concentrations were positively related to follicle diameters. Further, sows with higher IGF-1 concentrations at weaning and 3 days after weaning had shorter weaning-to-ovulation intervals (WOI). At subsequent farrowing, IGF-1 at weaning after first lactation was positively and creatinine concentration at weaning in Study II was negatively related to litter weight. Higher IGF-1 concentration at 3 days after weaning and at oestrus after first lactation were related to larger mean piglet birth weight at subsequent farrowing in Study I (β ≥ 1.0, P < 0.05 for both). Lower non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration at oestrus was also related to CV of piglet birth weight in Study II. Body weight (BW) loss and BF loss were not related to litter characteristics. Surprisingly, in study I, a higher relative loin muscle depth (LM) loss (%) during the previous lactation in both parity sows resulted in more uniform piglets. In Study II, higher LM loss during the last week of the previous lactation was related to higher proportions of small piglets and lower litter weight at subsequent farrowing. In conclusion, the supplemented compounds in the pre-mating diets of young sows did not improve follicle development after weaning or litter characteristics at subsequent farrowing. However, changes in metabolic hormones and metabolites related to sows’ body condition loss during lactation were associated with follicle development after weaning and litter characteristics at subsequent farrowing.The objective of this thesis was to modulate the pre-mating metabolic state of young sows by using specific pre-mating diets supplemented with L-carnitine (LC), L-arginine (AR), microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) and sugar beet pulp (SBP). A further objective was to investigate if and how pre-mating metabolic state affects subsequent follicle development and piglet birth weight. Sows received specific supplements to their pre-mating diets during the last week of lactation and weaning-to-oestrus interval (WEI) in both studies. In study I, a total of 56 first- and 20 second-parity sows received either wheat (CON) or wheat plus either MFC, LC or AR at one of two supplementation levels. In study II, 58 first-parity sows received treatment diets supplemented with SBP and MFC compared with commercial diets (CON). For both Study I and II, sows’ body condition and its losses during lactation were assessed. From weaning till ovulation, follicle diameters were repeatedly measured with ultrasound. Pre-prandial blood samples were collected at weaning, at 3 days after weaning and at oestrus for metabolic hormones and metabolites analysis. At subsequent farrowing, sows after their first (N = 41) and second (N = 15) lactation in Study I and 44 sows after their first lactation in Study II were used for investigation of litter characteristics (litter size, piglet birth weight and piglet birth weight variation). Before weaning, the pre-mating diets did not affect average daily feed intake (ADFI) and body condition losses in Study I. In Study II, however, SBP sows had higher backfat (BF) loss during the last week of lactation than MFC sows. Higher creatinine concentration at weaning was observed in SBP sows than in MFC sows. However, the pre-mating diets did not affect insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration, follicle development or litter characteristics at subsequent farrowing in either studies. At weaning, sows with higher plasma IGF-1 had larger follicles. At 3 days after weaning, IGF-1 and serum leptin concentrations were positively related to follicle diameters. Further, sows with higher IGF-1 concentrations at weaning and 3 days after weaning had shorter weaning-to-ovulation intervals (WOI). At subsequent farrowing, IGF-1 at weaning after first lactation was positively and creatinine concentration at weaning in Study II was negatively related to litter weight. Higher IGF-1 concentration at 3 days after weaning and at oestrus after first lactation were related to larger mean piglet birth weight at subsequent farrowing in Study I (β ≥ 1.0, P < 0.05 for both). Lower non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration at oestrus was also related to CV of piglet birth weight in Study II. Body weight (BW) loss and BF loss were not related to litter characteristics. Surprisingly, in study I, a higher relative loin muscle depth (LM) loss (%) during the previous lactation in both parity sows resulted in more uniform piglets. In Study II, higher LM loss during the last week of the previous lactation was related to higher proportions of small piglets and lower litter weight at subsequent farrowing. In conclusion, the supplemented compounds in the pre-mating diets of young sows did not improve follicle development after weaning or litter characteristics at subsequent farrowing. However, changes in metabolic hormones and metabolites related to sows’ body condition loss during lactation were associated with follicle development after weaning and litter characteristics at subsequent farrowing.
Subject: phD
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