The Effects of Early Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Epigenome and Embryonic Development

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Wallén , E M A , Auvinen , P & Kaminen-Ahola , N 2021 , ' The Effects of Early Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Epigenome and Embryonic Development ' , Genes , vol. 12 , no. 7 , 1095 . https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12071095

Title: The Effects of Early Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Epigenome and Embryonic Development
Author: Wallén, Essi Merma Aurora; Auvinen, Pauliina; Kaminen-Ahola, Nina
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics
University of Helsinki, Environmental Epigenetics Laboratory
University of Helsinki, Biosciences
Date: 2021-07-19
Language: eng
Number of pages: 13
Belongs to series: Genes
ISSN: 2073-4425
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/334050
Abstract: Prenatal alcohol exposure is one of the most significant causes of developmental disability in the Western world. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy leads to an increased risk of neurological deficits and developmental abnormalities in the fetus. Over the past decade, several human and animal studies have demonstrated that alcohol causes alterations in epigenetic marks, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs. There is an increasing amount of evidence that early pregnancy is a sensitive period for environmental-induced epigenetic changes. It is a dynamic period of epigenetic reprogramming, cell divisions, and DNA replication and, therefore, a particularly interesting period to study the molecular changes caused by alcohol exposure as well as the etiology of alcohol-induced developmental disorders. This article will review the current knowledge about the in vivo and in vitro effects of alcohol exposure on the epigenome, gene regulation, and the phenotype during the first weeks of pregnancy.
Subject: ACUTE INSULT
DIFFERENTIATION
DNA METHYLATION
DNA methylation
EPIGENETIC ALTERATIONS
ETHANOL EXPOSURE
GENE-EXPRESSION
INDUCED BRAIN ABNORMALITIES
MOUSE EMBRYOS
SPECTRUM DISORDERS
STEM-CELLS
embryonic stem cells
environmental epigenetics
epigenetic reprogramming
fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
histone modifications
miRNAs
mouse models
1184 Genetics, developmental biology, physiology
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