Brain Immune Interactions—Novel Emerging Options to Treat Acute Ischemic Brain Injury

Show full item record



Permalink

http://hdl.handle.net/10138/334603

Citation

Muhammad, S.; Chaudhry, S.R.; Kahlert, U.D.; Niemelä, M.; Hänggi, D. Brain Immune Interactions—Novel Emerging Options to Treat Acute Ischemic Brain Injury. Cells 2021, 10, 2429.

Title: Brain Immune Interactions—Novel Emerging Options to Treat Acute Ischemic Brain Injury
Author: Muhammad, Sajjad; Chaudhry, Shafqat Rasul; Kahlert, Ulf Dietrich; Niemelä, Mika; Hänggi, Daniel
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Date: 2021-09-15
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/334603
Abstract: Ischemic stroke is still among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Despite intensive advancements in medical sciences, the clinical options to treat ischemic stroke are limited to thrombectomy and thrombolysis using tissue plasminogen activator within a narrow time window after stroke. Current state of the art knowledge reveals the critical role of local and systemic inflammation after stroke that can be triggered by interactions taking place at the brain and immune system interface. Here, we discuss different cellular and molecular mechanisms through which brain–immune interactions can take place. Moreover, we discuss the evidence how the brain influence immune system through the release of brain derived antigens, damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), cytokines, chemokines, upregulated adhesion molecules, through infiltration, activation and polarization of immune cells in the CNS. Furthermore, the emerging concept of stemness-induced cellular immunity in the context of neurodevelopment and brain disease, focusing on ischemic implications, is discussed. Finally, we discuss current evidence on brain–immune system interaction through the autonomic nervous system after ischemic stroke. All of these mechanisms represent potential pharmacological targets and promising future research directions for clinically relevant discoveries.


Files in this item

Total number of downloads: Loading...

Files Size Format View
cells-10-02429.pdf 1012.Kb PDF View/Open

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show full item record