Exceptions and exemptions under the ballast water management convention – Sustainable alternatives for ballast water management?

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Okko Outinen, Sarah A. Bailey, Katja Broeg, Joël Chasse, Stacey Clarke, Rémi M. Daigle, Stephan Gollasch, Jenni E. Kakkonen, Maiju Lehtiniemi, Monika Normant-Saremba, Dawson Ogilvie, Frederique Viard. Exceptions and exemptions under the ballast water management convention – Sustainable alternatives for ballast water management? Journal of Environmental Management 293 (2021), 112823, ISSN 0301-4797. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112823

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Title: Exceptions and exemptions under the ballast water management convention – Sustainable alternatives for ballast water management?
Author: Outinen, Okko; Bailey, Sarah A.; Broeg, Katja; Chasse, Joël; Clarke, Stacey; Daigle, Rémi M.; Gollasch, Stephan; Kakkonen, Jenni E.; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Normant-Saremba, Monika; Ogilvie, Dawson; Viard, Frederique
Publisher: Elsevier
Date: 2021
Language: en
Belongs to series: Journal of Environmental Management 293 (2021), 112823
ISSN: 0301-4797
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112823
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/334636
Abstract: The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) aims to mitigate the introduction risk of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens (HAOP) via ships’ ballast water and sediments. The BWM Convention has set regulations for ships to utilise exceptions and exemptions from ballast water management under specific circumstances. This study evaluated local and regional case studies to provide clarity for situations, where ships could be excepted or exempted from ballast water management without risking recipient locations to new introductions of HAOP. Ships may be excepted from ballast water management if all ballasting operations are conducted in the same location (Regulation A-3.5 of the BWM Convention). The same location case study determined whether the entire Vuosaari harbour (Helsinki, Finland) should be considered as the same location based on salinity and composition of HAOP between the two harbour terminals. The Vuosaari harbour case study revealed mismatching occurrences of HAOP between the harbour terminals, supporting the recommendation that exceptions based on the same location concept should be limited to the smallest feasible areas within a harbour. The other case studies evaluated whether ballast water exemptions could be granted for ships using two existing risk assessment (RA) methods (Joint Harmonised Procedure [JHP] and Same Risk Area [SRA]), consistent with Regulation A-4 of the BWM Convention. The JHP method compares salinity and presence of target species (TS) between donor and recipient ports to indicate the introduction risk (high or low) attributed to transferring unmanaged ballast water. The SRA method uses a biophysical model to determine whether HAOP could naturally disperse between ports, regardless of their transportation in ballast water. The results of the JHP case study for the Baltic Sea and North-East Atlantic Ocean determined that over 97% of shipping routes within these regions resulted in a high-risk indication. The one route assessed in the Gulf of Maine, North America also resulted in a high-risk outcome. The SRA assessment resulted in an overall weak connectivity between all ports assessed within the Gulf of the St. Lawrence, indicating that a SRA-based exemption would not be appropriate for the entire study area. In summary, exceptions and exemptions should not be considered as common alternatives for ballast water management. The availability of recent and detailed species occurrence data was considered the most important factor to conduct a successful and reliable RA. SRA models should include biological factors that influence larval dispersal and recruitment potential (e.g., pelagic larval duration, settlement period) to provide a more realistic estimation of natural dispersal.
Description: Highlights • Data quality is very important for conducting a reliable risk assessment. • Same locations should be confined to smallest practicable areas within a port. • Nearly all shipping routes with adequate data resulted in high-risk outcomes. • Pelagic larval traits are key factors in natural dispersal modelling assessments.
Subject: ballast water management
exemption
non-indigenous species
risk assessment
international shipping
harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens
United States of America
Canada
Finland
Baltic Sea
Vuosaari
harbours
case study
sea conservation
Atlantic Ocean
ship traffic
shipping
sustainability
maritime navigation
ships
ballast water
international agreements
water management
emissions
risk management
ballast
sediments
sea routes
Baltic region
Subject (ysa): tapaustutkimus
USA
Yhdysvallat
vieraslajit
leviäminen
Itämeri
meriensuojelu
käsittely
taudinaiheuttajat
Atlantin valtameri
Vuosaari
satamat
kansainvälisyys
Kanada
Suomi
laivaliikenne
riskinarviointi
painolastivesi
kestävä kehitys
merenkulku
laivat
painolastivesi
kansainväliset sopimukset
vesienhoito
päästöt
riskienhallinta
painolasti
sedimentit
meriväylät
Itämeren alue
Rights: CC BY 4.0


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