Online Hate and Zeitgeist of Fear : A Five-Country Longitudinal Analysis of Hate Exposure and Fear of Terrorism After the Paris Terrorist Attacks in 2015

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Kaakinen , M , Oksanen , A , Gadarian , S K , Solheim , Ø B , Herreros , F , Winsvold , M S , Enjolras , B & Steen-Johnsen , K 2021 , ' Online Hate and Zeitgeist of Fear : A Five-Country Longitudinal Analysis of Hate Exposure and Fear of Terrorism After the Paris Terrorist Attacks in 2015 ' , Political Psychology , vol. 42 , no. 6 , pp. 1019-1035 . https://doi.org/10.1111/pops.12732

Title: Online Hate and Zeitgeist of Fear : A Five-Country Longitudinal Analysis of Hate Exposure and Fear of Terrorism After the Paris Terrorist Attacks in 2015
Author: Kaakinen, Markus; Oksanen, Atte; Gadarian, Shana Kushner; Solheim, Øyvind Bugge; Herreros, Francisco; Winsvold, Marte Slagsvold; Enjolras, Bernard; Steen-Johnsen, Kari
Contributor organization: Institute of Criminology and Legal Policy
Date: 2021-12
Language: eng
Number of pages: 17
Belongs to series: Political Psychology
ISSN: 0162-895X
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/pops.12732
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/337261
Abstract: Acts of terror lead to both a rise of an extended sense of fear that goes beyond the physical location of the attacks and to increased expressions of online hate. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed dynamics between the exposure to online hate and the fear of terrorism after the Paris attacks in November 13, 2015. We hypothesized that exposure to online hate is connected to a perceived Zeitgeist of fear (i.e., collective fear). In turn, the perceived Zeitgeist of fear is related to higher personal fear of terrorism both immediately after the attacks and a year later. Hypotheses were tested using path modeling and panel data (N = 2325) from Norway, Finland, Spain, France, and the United States a few weeks after the Paris attacks in November 2015 and again a year later in January 2017. With the exception of Norway, exposure to online hate had a positive association with the perceived Zeitgeist of fear in all our samples. The Zeitgeist of fear was correlated with higher personal fear of terrorism immediately after the attacks and one year later. We conclude that online hate content can contribute to the extended sense of fear after the terrorist attacks by skewing perceptions of social climate.
Subject: terrorism
online hate
fear
social media
513 Law
5144 Social psychology
515 Psychology
5171 Political Science
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: publishedVersion


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