Metal and PAH loads from ships and boats, relative other sources, in the Baltic Sea

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Title: Metal and PAH loads from ships and boats, relative other sources, in the Baltic Sea
Author: Ytreberg, Erik; Hansson, Katarina; Hermansson, Anna Lunde; Parsmo, Rasmus; Lagerström, Maria; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Hassellöv, Ida-Maja
Contributor organization: Ilmatieteen laitos
Finnish Meteorological Institute
Publisher: Macmillan
Date: 2022
Language: en
Belongs to series: Marine pollution bulletin
ISSN: 0025-326X
Abstract: The Baltic Sea is a sensitive environment that is affected by chemical pollution derived from multiple natural and anthropogenic sources. The overall aim of this study was to estimate the load of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from shipping and leisure boating, relative other sources, to the Baltic Sea and to identify possible measures that could lead to major reductions in the loads of hazardous substances from maritime shipping and leisure boating. The use of copper-based antifouling paints, and operation of scrubbers in open loop mode, were the two most dominant identified sources of hazardous substances to the Baltic Sea. Open loop scrubbers accounted for 8.5 % of the total input of anthracene to the sea. More than a third of the total load of copper can be reduced if copper-free antifouling paints or other biocide-free antifouling strategies are used on ships and leisure boats.
Subject: shipping
leisure boats
Baltic Sea
load compilation
Rights: CC BY 4.0

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